Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Analytical Consideration in Filmmaking

Analytical Consideration in Filmmaking Free Online Research Papers Filmmaking is a collaborative effort with several elements that are worthy of analytical consideration. The success of a film is dependent upon telling a story that is cohesive and interesting through the use of cinematic elements, talented actors, and a host of other factors that affect the films quality. The ability to analyze these elements by the audience can enhance and deepen their viewing experience. Paying attention to the details of a film along with the nuances that occur between actors during their interactions with one another adds further dimension to what would have otherwise been a simple, flat story line. Some of the criteria that a quality film should meet according to the standards of an educated film critic would include believable settings, actors, and dialogue. The film sequences would be cohesive and logical and the costumes would be relevant to the setting and time period. Perhaps there would be a moral to the story, but this is not necessary if the intent of the film is to entertain or frighten. Motivational movies are great; who does not like to be uplifted from time to time? In essence, when analyzing or reviewing a film, there are many elements one should be aware of. Accurate and effective film analysis is dependent upon some knowledge of the film making industry as well as its cinematography aspects. Background knowledge of the movies producer will also aid the film critic in arriving at more accurate conclusions about the films message and purpose. There are many reasons for which films are made. Some films are meant to be entertaining and uplifting, like The Secret Garden (1994) that inspired young girls to trust and explore their nurturing nature. Other films are looking to thrill audiences by frighten their sox off. Alfred Hitchcock was one such director as he produced films like Psycho (1960). Still, there are those who choose their films based upon the message it contains about social, personal, or relational issues. Such films might include Schindler’s List (1993) that dramatically detailed the abuse and uncontested genocide of millions of Jews. Similarly, One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975) brought to light the plight of the mentally ill. Because there are many reasons producers make a film, one must be aware of why the movie was made when considering the accuracy of what was portrayed. Whatever the reason one chooses to view a movie, their viewing pleasure can be increased through an education of the filmmaking process. One must also contend with whatever preconceived ideas one has about a film. Whether these ideas originate from its genre, its actors, or even its producer, the ability to develop a more objective attitude towards movies will open the field for broader experiences. â€Å"As students of film, once we have gathered facts, decided what movies to see, and attempted to clear our minds of preconceptions, then what? We should begin to deepen our perceptions† (Boggs Petrie, 2008, p. 17). The more one becomes experienced in analyzing film, the more one can become open to the perceptions and opinions of others. After all, a film is the collaborative expression of the screen writer, producer, actors, as well as the entire film crew. These expressions can be detected within the cinematography and the elements of its visual style. These elements include color, space, focus, depth of field, camera angles, point of view, composition, movement, aspect ratios, lighting, and atmosphere. The quality usage of each of these elements contributes to the overall feel and quality of the film. Color can be used to facilitate atmosphere, harmony, irony, leitmotifs, mood, as well as symbolism and expressionism. In Rebel Without a Cause (1955) the red jacket is used to convey the rebellious nature of Jim (James Dean), the red lipstick that later transitions to pink signifies the way Judy’s (Natalie Wood) father makes her feel like a harlot, and the one red sock worn by ‘Plato’ (Sal Mineo) demonstrates his confusion about relationships. The use of color is and important element used in films as a form of communicating further, deeper meaning to the audience. The portrayal of space, focus, and depth of field enhances the picture quality as well as informative content of what is viewed by the audience. The use of depth of field as well as deep focus by producer Orson Wells in the film Citizen Kane (1941) enhanced several of its scenes. The shot of Kane (Orson Wells) walking down the mirrored hallway allows us to simultaneously view several images emphasizing the irony of the lonely position he now finds himself in. It is the viewer’s awareness of these elements that adds to the meaning and feel of a film. As indicated by Boggs and Petrie, the objective camera simply conveys the actions of the characters without implying emotion or feelings. Other elements that are used in order to more effectively add dimension and meaning to the story are camera angles, point of view, and composition. In Rebel Without a Cause the opening scene is a composition of the films three central characters. Each character is introduced to the audience at the police department as each one has been brought there for unrelated reasons. While the audience is allowed to view more than one of these characters at a time, they are not necessarily aware of one another. This objective point of view indicates the ultimate interconnectedness of these young people. The use of different camera angles can be used to symbolize meanings within shots or scenes. When viewing a scene from a low angle shot the size and importance of the subject can be emphasized (Boggs Petrie, 2008). This visual element helps to enhance the films message through added dimension. After Kane’s electoral defeat in Citizen Kane, the low angle shots help to emphasize his fall from self-perceived importance to lowliness. Camera angles are to cinematographers as body language is to conversationalists. The ability to discern the usage and meaning of movement, aspect ratios, and lighting throughout a films presentation can also add meaning and quality when viewing films. Many directors make great use of movement in their films in order to capture and maintain the attention of its viewers. â€Å"The eye is †¦drawn to an object in motion, and a moving object can divert our attention from a static one† (Boggs Petrie, 2008, p. 135). This element is used in Rebel Without a Cause when Jim (James Dean) exits his position from the bushes when he goes to find ‘Plato’ (Sal Mineo) before the police do. As Jim comes out of the bushes, they continue to shake which keeps our attention focused on the spot into which Judy (Natalie Wood) enters. This was a masterful use of movement within a film. Aspect ratios are utilized when considering what viewable information needs to be presented in order to tell the complete story. Standard screen allows an edited version of the story to be told, thereby focusing the viewers’ attention on the information most pertinent to the scene. Conversely, â€Å"Cinemascope and Panavision can contribute significantly to the effectiveness of horror or suspense films† (Boggs Petrie, p. 93). An informed viewer will notice the black areas above and beneath the picture when Cinemascope is being used. This helps to eliminate the dead screen, allowing the viewer to become more aware of the subject matter in between. Nicholas Ray’s Rebel Without a Cause was filmed using Cinemascope with an aspect ratio of 2.55:1, allowing for more focused, dramatic, and spatial subject content. A wide array of information is available to the viewer, such as the shot of Jim and Judy as they lay in the veranda with ‘Plato’ on the floor at their side. The audience is able to piece together the visual information in order to gain the understanding that Ray intended them to be portrayed as a ‘nuclear’ family. Each of them felt rejected and misunderstood by their own family, creating the idea that they would choose one another as family was facilitated by the use of visual elements. The often tilted camera angle also suggested the confused state these kids were living in. Additionally, the audience must be convinced of the credibility of what they are seeing and these cinematic elements can be effectively used to create the illusion of truth. Another element available for manipulation by filmmakers is the use of lighting. Effective use of lights and lighting within a film can alter, enhance, or change the mood from scene to scene or shot to shot. For instance, during the scene in Rebel Without a Cause when Judy returns home after her boyfriend is killed in ‘chickie run’, the light that is on her is sharp and bright, illustrating her isolation and loneliness when compared to the soft, diffused lighting in her parent’s bedroom. Illustrating a point or mood through manipulation of lighting is an excellent way to add dimension to a film. Constructing the correct atmosphere is essential in achieving a successful film. Nicholas Ray conducted personal research into the lives of teens in order to portray with accuracy the atmosphere in which they lived. The atmosphere that is portrayed in the film is that of confused, lonely kids acting out in rebellion or desperation in order to get the attention they desperately desired from both their parents and one another. This tense and dramatically charged atmosphere is perhaps at times more symbolic of how teens feel towards adults rather than how they behave towards one another. Regardless, Ray’s portrayal of the volatility teens feel is portrayed brilliantly when ‘Plato’ begins his emotional rampage when he believes Jim and Judy have abandoned him like his parents did. This added much to the dramatic element and emotional connotation to the film. The atmospheric presentation in Casablanca (1942) was made memorable with aperture framing through the use of objects and shadows in the composition of many of its shots (Neilson, 2002). These frames served as symbolic meaning as well as elements used to focus the viewers’ attention. The arched doorways in Rick’s (Humphrey Bogart) symbolized both the confinement of some of the patrons as well as foreshadowing the ultimate fate of others. They also served to focus the viewers’ attention on the subject matter within the frames. Along with the cinematic and visual elements of a film, the narrative must be analyzed in order to fully understand what it is the director is attempting to convey. Nicholas Ray makes use of mise-en-scene in Rebel Without a Cause. The story begins in the middle of the action; much of the story has already occurred and the audience is made aware of these events through the dialogue within the police station. Additionally, the theme is revealed as the teens recount their actions. The express need for open, honest communication between teens and their parents is expressed as the current emotional state of the three is made known. Ray’s clever use of expository dialogue here allows the audience to become aware of information needed to understand the actions of the main characters. Although this film has a linear chronology, the narrative through dialogue provides much of the needed background information. The montage of parents calling the police station concerning their children was rather expressive of the fact that sadly, it took drastic measures to evoke their parents concern for them. This was an important element of the film that was perhaps intended to inform parents that their children desire to have a relationship with them. It was the actors in this film that made this desire believable. The skill of the actors is paramount in convincing the audience of the believability of a film. Boggs and Petrie defines action acting as, â€Å"demand[ing] skill in facial reactions and body language, physical strength, and coordination but little subtlety or depth in communicating emotions or thoughts† (2008, p. G-1). While the acting in Rebel Without a Cause was outstanding, it did have its weak moments. During the action scene in which Jim (James Dean) was engaged in a knife fight with Buzz (Corey Allen) was not one of Dean’s most convincing moments. This fact lends credibility to the claim made by Boggs and Petrie that action acting demands the use of well choreographed body language. Moreover, the chemistry between actors adds an extra visually charging element to a film. When Judy approaches Jim before the start of chickie run, the audience could sense the chemistry between these two young, beautiful actors. Romanticism is an element that is not always present between leading actors, but when it is there you know it. While the actor must submit to the director and to the camera, he must have the ability to remain natural and believable. â€Å"Actors must also possess the intelligence, imagination, sensitivity, and insight into human nature necessary to fully understand the characters they play-their inner thoughts, motivations, and emotions† (Boggs Petrie, 2008, p. 320). They must maintain control of their emotions as well as body language while keeping an objective perspective of the role they are playing. Sal Mineo gave a compelling display of acting as â€Å"Plato†. His facial expressions were as audible as his dialogue and body language. One could feel the desperation with which he sought someone to love and be loved. The emotion with which he acted seemed as real as any actor would have been capable of. The scenes in which he played a part were elevated as far as the acting was concerned; the performances of both Dean and Wood were also emotionally charged. Along with the acting and cinematic elements, the use of sound and music are important tools used in the making of quality films. â€Å"The two most general and basic functions of the musical score are to create structural rhythms and to stimulate emotional responses, both of which greatly enhance and reinforce the effect of the image† (Boggs Petrie, p. 292). The musical score for Rebel Without a Cause was written by Leonard Rosenman. An effective musical score maintains an accurate reflection of the films emotional patterns as well as its actions from sequence to sequence. The film begins with orchestral music as James Dean’s character, Jim, is drunk on the ground playing with a toy monkey. Rosenman also makes use of musical scores that were remixed for use in Rebel Without a Cause. Throughout the film, the musical score, as well as sound effects, serve to cue the audience to the magnitude of what is happening or is about to happen. This musical score is not overpowering, but one is certainly aware of its presence. Some have criticized this musical score as being over scored, but many more were well pleased with the effect it had on the feel of the film. In conclusion, film reviewing is not for everyone. Many feel that dissecting the elements of a film detract from the overall enjoyment of it. Others have the opinion that having cinematic knowledge helps one gain even more viewing pleasure from the film they view. While both have valid points, it is important to note that it is the cinematic knowledge that increases the spectrum of movies one would consider viewing by perpetuating a more open minded public. This open mindedness is what allows one to objectively identify and interpret the meaning of cinematic elements. References Boggs, J. M., Petrie, D. W. (2008). The art of watching films (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Neilson, J. I. (December, 2002). On visual design and staging in Casablanca. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from Point of View Web site: Research Papers on Analytical Consideration in FilmmakingWhere Wild and West MeetIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andThree Concepts of PsychodynamicStandardized TestingThe Project Managment Office SystemInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenResearch Process Part OneOpen Architechture a white paper

Saturday, November 23, 2019

An Unexpected Question About You

An Unexpected Question About You An Unexpected Question About You An Unexpected Question About You By Maeve Maddox A reader has been having a discussion with a friend about which of the following is the right grammar You was..or You were†¦ The fact that this question can be the subject of discussion in an age of free public education suggests either that basic standard grammar is not being taught effectively in the schools, or that pronouns are going to continue to go their own way as they have always done. Add the bombardment of ungrammatical popular culture to the current of normal linguistic change, and grammatical certainties as apparently fundamental as you were are called into question. Take, for example, these lyrics from a song sung by Dean Martin and Peggy Lee: (PL) If you were to ask me who the sweetest one I knew was Id say you was (DM) If you were to ask me who my favorite point of view was Id say you was Any construction, heard often enough, is going to begin to sound right to the speakers who hear it. In the case of you, the situation is muddied by the fact that the pronoun you is used with either a singular or a plural antecedent. You began as a plural pronoun. Its singular counterpart was thou. For social and historical reasons the form thou dropped out of English with the result that plural you now does the work of singular thou. Its not illogical to want to put a singular verb with a subject that stands for one person. In the case of you, however, its ungrammatical in standard English. To answer the readers question: You were is the correct standard form. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Good At, Good In, and Good With60 Synonyms for â€Å"Trip†How to Punctuate Introductory Phrases

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Reader response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reader response - Essay Example The report stresses on the fact that bad writing does not only mean not being able to write, rather more importantly it means not being able to convert an idea into fine words. In another article by (Fried), the importance of good writing is further stresses in the business world especially, where bad writing means a direct and instant loss in productivity and customer dissatisfaction. In the article, bad writing is sarcastically described as â€Å"stale, soggy rice cakes†, which are devoid of taste and nutrition. In an order to increase the number of customers, business people have got to rely on using writing skills that are persuasive and creative. (MBA Jargon Watch) may be considered a beneficial source in an order to build up on the type of vocabulary which is needed in the business world to create an attractive and good piece of writing that would be able to woo the customers. Many words introduced by (MBA Jargon Watch) may seem new to the business world writers and they may be ignorant of them as well, due to which bad writing comes on all geared up to spoil a company’s future. All three articles stress on the ultimate importance of good writing in the business world and appreciate the usage of creative writing

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Dispossessed of Colombia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Dispossessed of Colombia - Essay Example Women were also looked down upon and not given enough opportunities in life. Their plight was miserable because of the government not being able to take a stance in their lives and help them prosper in any way. Thus, this paper helps to provide an insight into the socially rejected lives of Colombians who were blacklisted and not cared for by the government, and how despite being neglected by society, they tried to live their lives somehow. The book tells a number of stories mostly with respect to violence and the impact of violence on people in and around Colombia. It is mostly about the kind of military violence that many families were forced and subjected to and how their innocence was snatched away from them as they were made to flee their homes. Every story has one single commonality – the danger of meeting death and destruction. This fear was stark in every person’s mind living at the time in Colombia. ... The struggle is always present in their lives as they are not able to help any kind of situation that they have been thrust within. In one of the stories, a young girl by the name of Angela speaks out in a horrified manner, having witnessed war and crimes at a tender and early age, â€Å"My father wants to go back†¦because he says everything is going to be difficult here. But I don’t want to go back.† 1 The worst part about being a part of the disposed people, according to the author and general view, is that such people can never find a place where they will be able to live life freely and be comfortable in. Fear has become imbibed in their minds to a very great extent. For them, there are no sides because they could be attacked by anyone at any point of time. According to another victim of this violence in the book by the name of Tonito, his outlook towards the situation is as such; â€Å"I thought to myself, no, it’s better to go back and look for death than wait for it to find me.†2 (Goring, Ruth) The most interesting part about the author’s writing is that he is able to bring out both sides of the coin within the country of Colombia with respect to its violence. He says that the victims always remain the same groups of people as well as the same families, even if the people attacking might be different groups at different times. Thus, these displaced people are the ones that were hit the worst because of the guerrilla warfare that had been going on within the country at the time. Another victim, Ninfa, expressed her views very solemnly as she saw her husband being killed in front of her eyes; a livid image that will probably never leave the realms of her mind and leave her scarred forever. She said, â€Å"The same people who

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Costa Launches New Flavour Drinks This Winter Essay Example for Free

Costa Launches New Flavour Drinks This Winter Essay ?Try Cioccospresso! Costa launches new flavour drinks for this different winter 12/11/2014 Costa is looking to create warmth this winter thanks to a brand new offering that will light up your taste buds. As the UK’s fastest growing coffee shop chain ,costa never stops its steps in innovation. This time, costa try to deliver an intense chocolate experience to you by offering Costa Cioccosresso, an upgraded chocolate drinks which will be available to buy in Costa and Costa Metro from 12th November 2014. It’s time to try something new besides your favorite coffee. Cioccospresso brings the zesty tastes right to your cup:chilli,vanilla,orange,mint and ginger. Combined with newly found cocoa and natural brown sugar,and topped with whipped cream and baking spices, this new drink addition offers you mellow enjoyment without adding milk. During her vocation in Mexico,Victoria Stewart, one of Costa’s barista, discovered this magic drink and brought it back to dear you. It’s even better that Cioccospresso is made with patented machine specially designed by Costa to keep its original aroma and healthy effects. Andrew Tornatore, senior marketing director for Costas UK, said: This is another delicious addition to the Costa’s menu and one were proud to be launching. We always try to offer more healthy beverage and food to our customers, which is why we try hard discovering better ingredients and techniques. New additions like Cioccospresso is one of our achievements. Great healthy effects such as reductions of migraines,risk of cardiovascular problems and blood pressure will be shown to you while the beverage still upholding the high standards. † The initial launch will also be hold in Leicester Square branch in November 12th,Aztec historians and health experts will be attending to present more information. Except that,Costa’s online activities waiting for your involvements as well,show your â€Å"Chocolate indulgence† and win free holidays! To find your nearest store, for more information or to view a menu visit www. costa. co. uk or Costa’s Facebook fan page. Press Enquiries: Nina Chen University of Leeds 0783 5xxx xxx Tuesday 10th November, 2014.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Career Choice :: essays research papers

Choosing a career is one of the most important decisions a person has to make in their life. It is so important because that is what we will have to do to support ourselves throughout life. Imagine being stuck in a dead end job and having to go to work every morning and dreading it. That is no spending oneÕs time and life is too short to work 35 years and be unhappy with it. If a person likes the job they do then it is not work, because finding satisfaction out of a job can bring great happiness. That information has enabled me to make the decision of choosing my area of study and career in the field of Information Technology. Many things have lead up to my decision to choose a career in Information Systems. It started at my first semester at my local community college. I was enrolled in their graphic design program and most of the classes I was taking consisted of art classes. My first computer class was working in Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. They are graphic programs that many graphic designerÕs use to make their design work. While working with these programs I was very intrigued by the power of computers and how they work. While going to school at the local community college I soon got a job at CitiMortgage working at the computer help desk. I was learning more about computers and networking which helped lead to my decision to change my degree of study to information systems. Along with my change of interest and working for a company that helps pay for my school I was looking for a better college to attend and that had a program that would fit my needs. I soon became aware of Maryville University and the weekend and evening college program that they offered.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Music and Politics Essay

A famous artist can have an influence over entire nations through the lyrics of his or her music. Marshal Mathers, aka â€Å"Eminem†, has done just that. He uses his rap lyrics and music videos as a pulpit to express an entire generation’s anger at society and government. Eminem is one of the most controversial rappers to ever enter mainstream music, with songs about abusing females, killing, and doing large amounts of drugs. What many fail to realize is that Eminem is not promoting any of these. Instead, he is expressing an angry generation’s innermost thoughts, feelings, and psychological issues in such a way that the mainstream media and government cannot ignore them. Some say that Eminem does nothing but influence teens towards drug use and violence. However, unlike most rappers, he does not glorify the lifestyle he has lead. In fact, his lyrics are dark and angry, not in any way appealing. Eminem’s lyrics are simply the culmination of an angry generation speaking out for recognition. Years after his initial success in mainstream rap, he has spawned an entire generation of rappers that have been largely influenced by his style of music. In 2004 Eminem released a single called â€Å"Mosh† that had a different cause and effect than his previous songs. â€Å"Mosh† targeted voters of all ethnicities and encouraged them to be active in the 2004 election. Eminem had very clear messages about his political opinions through out his lyrics, stories, and the color settings for the video. The lyrics to this song had strong language and struck a cord in the beliefs of many Americans. Eminem expressed strong feelings on President Bush’s decisions. He showed his rejection of Bush by using the following lyrics in his song: â€Å"F@#K Bush, until they bring our troops home,† â€Å"No more blood for oil, we got our own battles to fight on our own soil,† â€Å"The stars and stripes, they’ve been swiped, washed out and wiped and replaced with his own face. † Eminem’s lyrics influenced a lot of his fans to vote against Bush in the 2004 Presidential Election. Eminem realized that controversy created interest and that would also create a market for is music and more importantly the messages that are encoded in his songs. Countries have even tried to ban him from entering to play concerts. The following excerpt is from an ABC News story some years ago. â€Å"On Wednesday, Ontario Attorney General Jim Flaherty said that the rap star’s lyrics are so violent toward women that the artist shouldn’t be allowed to perform in Canada. â€Å"I personally don’t want anyone coming to Canada who will come here and advocate violence against women,† Flaherty told the Queen’s Park Bureau. He urged federal immigration officials to â€Å"make sure the usual procedures are observed† if Eminem enters the country. The officials ruled that the weapons and assault charges that the artist faces in the States aren’t sufficient reason to bar him from performing in Canada. The latest controversy over the star’s lyrics erupted after Valerie Smith registered a complaint with the Toronto Police hate crimes unit on Oct. 4. The self-appointed â€Å"media violence† watchdog said the words to songs like â€Å"Kim†(in which the he murders his wife) constitute hate propaganda and thus are in violation of the Canadian Criminal Code. (ABC News) Eminem is not strictly anti-Bush, in fact he’s been at odds with Bill Clinton as well, mostly over the fact of the President’s scandal’s. In the track â€Å"Who Knew†, he takes aim at the hypocrisy of a political culture that excuses Presidential infidelity, while demanding censorship of his lyrics. Eminem has said that people should be taking his lyrics â€Å"with a grain of salt. † He says it is not the kids who are repulsed, because they understand that â€Å"at the end of the day . . . it’s all a joke. Most of the controversial lyrics are deeply ironic and sarcastic, spoken from the misanthropic mouth of Eminem’s alter ego, â€Å"Slim Shady†. Perhaps the most interesting thing about Eminem and his alter ego Slim Shady is that the rapper has come full circle. He has gone from lyrics about beating his wife and doing drugs(which to those who actually intelligently listen to his music know is all about his psychological controversy) to a man going through the hells of rehab, to a then rehabilitated man learning to deal with the struggles of life, while not taking the easy route out t hrough substance abuse. Starting with the album ,Relapse, Eminem showed us a completely different side than in his previous albums. Previous to this album Eminem had been on hiatus for four years due to emotional turmoil and an addiction to prescription sleeping pills. During this time his childhood friend â€Å"Proof† was shot outside a Detroit nightclub. This had a devastating effect on the rapper. †Everyone felt [Proof’s] loss, from his kids, to his wife, to everyone. But, for some reason, in hindsight, the way I felt was almost like it happened to just me†¦ Maybe at the time I was a little bit selfish with it. I think it kind of hit me so hard. It just blindsided me. I just went into such a dark place that, with everything, the drugs, my thoughts, everything. And the more drugs I consumed, and it was all depressants I was taking, the more depressed I became, the more self-loathing I became. In the initial recording stages of Relapse, record producer and long-time Detroit collaborator Jeff Bass of the Bass Brothers worked with Eminem on 25 tracks, two years after the rapper had received treatment for his sleeping pill addiction, in 2005. Depressed by Proof’s death, Eminem fell into a period of writer’s block, where he felt everything he wrote was not worth recording. To compensate for this, Bass chose to follow a production style that would allow the artist to rap â€Å"off the top of his head, as opposed to writing a story†. Eminem would then freestyle or record vocals one line at a time before interrupting and then recording another line. At the same time, according to Eminem’s song rights supervisor Joel Martin, the rapper began to collect additional material. He would often record or produce material initially intended for the musical projects of other artists, but end up with tracks he really liked. â€Å"Beautiful† produced by Eminem, was the only song on Relapse that was recorded in these years while he was not sober. Relapse is about Eminem’s struggles with drug addiction and his subsequent rehabilitation. While controversial the lyrics in the album deal with the psyche of a man addled by addiction. The culmination of Eminem’s journey can be shown in the album Recovery. Recovery features more introspective and emotional content than Eminem’s previous albums. In the single â€Å"Not Afraid† The song’s lyrics focus on a positive change from Eminem’s past experiences, including an end to drug abuse, feuds and violence. Whatever dark days Eminem has lived through, he seems to be at peace with himself now. Eminem even chose to use Marshall Mathers rather than his evil alter ego Slim Shady in the song. This song provides some closure to the circle of life of the rapper Eminem and his alter egos. Eminem, who battled an addiction to prescription drugs, thanked his fans at a New York concert for helping him get through dark times. The 39-year-old told hundreds Thursday night that he ‘wouldn’t have gotten out of that dark place without y’all’ before he performed the Grammy-winning song â€Å"Not Afraid. † He said the performance was ‘dedicated to anybody tonight who’s been through pers onal struggles. †(Huffington Post) Where the future will lead him, who knows, considering his colorful past.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Corporate Finance

1. Which one of the following is a means by which shareholders can replace company management? A. stock options B. promotion C. Sarbanes-Oxley Act D. agency play E. proxy fight 2. Decisions made by financial managers should primarily focus on increasing which one of the following? A. size of the firm B. growth rate of the firm C. gross profit per unit produced D. market value per share of outstanding stock E. total sales 3. Which one of the following is the financial statement that shows the accounting value of a firm's equity as of a particular date? A. income statement B. creditor's statement C. balance sheet D. statement of cash flows E. dividend statement4. Which one of the following is the financial statement that summarizes a firm's revenue and expenses over a period of time? A. income statement B. balance sheet C. statement of cash flows D. tax reconciliation statement E. market value report5. The percentage of the next dollar you earn that must be paid in taxes is referred to as the _____ tax rate. A. mean B. residual C. total D. average E. marginal EDCAE6. The cash flow of a firm which is available for distribution to the firm's creditors and stockholders is called the: A. perating cash flow. B. net capital spending. C. net working capital. D. cash flow from assets. E. cash flow to stockholders.7. Canine Supply has sales of $2,200, total assets of $1,400, and a debt-equity ratio of 0. 3. Its return on equity is 15 percent. What is the net income? A. $138. 16 B. $141. 41 C. $152. 09 D. $156. 67 E. $161. 548. Beach Wear has current liabilities of $350,000, a quick ratio of 1. 65, inventory turnover of 3. 2, and a current ratio of 2. 9. What is the cost of goods sold? A. $980,000 B. $1,060,000 C. $1,200,000 D. $1,400,000 E. 1,560,0009. The sustainable growth rate of a firm is best described as the: A. minimum growth rate achievable assuming a 100 percent retention ratio. B. minimum growth rate achievable if the firm maintains a constant equity multiplier. C. maximum growth rate achievable excluding external financing of any kind. D. maximum growth rate achievable excluding any external equity financing while maintaining a constant debt-equity ratio. E. maximum growth rate achievable with unlimited debt financing.10. The internal growth rate of a firm is best described as the: A. inimum growth rate achievable assuming a 100 percent retention ratio. B. minimum growth rate a chievable if the firm maintains a constant equity multiplier. C. maximum growth rate achievable excluding external financing of any kind. D. maximum growth rate achievable excluding any external equity financing while maintaining a constant debt-equity ratio. E. maximum growth rate achievable with unlimited debt financing. DEDDC11. What is the present value of $1,100 per year, at a discount rate of 10 percent if the first payment is received 6 years from now and the last payment is received 28 years from now? A. $6,067. 36 B. $6,138. 87 C. $6,333. 33 D. $6,420. 12 E. $6,511. 0812. The current yield is defined as the annual interest on a bond divided by which one of the following? A. coupon B. face value C. market price D. call price E. dirty price13. Currently, the bond market requires a return of 11. 6 percent on the 10-year bonds issued by Winston Industries. The 11. 6 percent is referred to as which one of the following? A. coupon rate B. face rate C. call rate D. yield to maturi ty E. interest rate14. Big Falls Tours just paid a dividend of $1. 55 per share.The dividends are expected to grow at 30 percent for the next 8 years and then level off to a 7 percent growth rate indefinitely. What is the price of this stock today given a required return of 15 percent? A. $67. 54 B. $69. 90 C. $72. 47 D. $77. 67 E. $78. 1915. Hardwoods, Inc. is a mature manufacturing firm. The company just paid a $10 dividend, but management expects to reduce the payout by 9 percent each year, indefinitely. How much are you willing to pay today per share to buy this stock if you require a 15 percent rate of return? A. $34. 79 B. $37. 92 C. $38. 27 D. $41. 33 E. $42. 09 ACDDB Corporate Finance Consider a project to produce solar water heaters. It requires a $10 million investment and offers a level after-tax cash flow of $1. 75 million per year for 10 years. The opportunity cost of capital is 12 percent, which reflects the project's business risk. Suppose the project is financed with $5 million of debt and $5 million of equity. The interest rate is 8 percent and the marginal tax rate is 35 percent. The debt will be paid off in equal annual installments over the project's 10-year life. A) Calculate APV.APV = NPV + PV of debt tax shield NPV = PV of cash flows – initial investment Initial Investment 10,000,000 Cash flows 1,750,000 Period 10 years Discounting rate12% PV of cash flows 9,887,890 using the PV function NPV (112,110) We now calculate the PV of debt tax shield Year Debt Outstanding at Start of Year InterestInterest Tax ShieldsPresent Value of Tax Shields 1 5,000,000 400,000 140,000 129,630 2 4,500,000 360,000 126,000 108,025 3 4,000,000 320,000 112,000 88,909 4 3,500,000 280,000 98,000 72,033 3,000,000 240,000 84,000 57,169 6 2,500,000 200,000 70,000 44,112 7 2,000,000 160,000 56,000 32,675 8 1,500,000 120,000 42,000 22,691 9 1,000,000 80,000 28,000 14,007 10 500,000 40,000 14,000 6,485 Total 2,200,000 770,000 575,736 NPV (112,110) PV of debt tax shield 575,736 APV 463,626 B) How does APV change if the firm incurs issue costs of $400,000 to raise the $5 million of required equity? With flotation cost , APV = NPV + PV of debt tax shield – flotation cost Flotation cost 400,000 APV 63,626 Corporate Finance There is nothing like optimum capital structure for a firm. The Optimal Capital structure is that Capital Structure at which the weighted Average cost of capital (Ko) is Minimum. It is that combination of Equity and Debt at which the total cost of capital is mini-mum. Trade-off theory argues that there's an optimal amount of debt of each firm. At this level of debt, firms can take the most advantage of debts. Debts can be tax shield so that they can save money for firms to reinvest in other projects so as to earn more profits.However, debts can be quite dangerous because highly leveraged firms may face bankruptcy and financial distress costs (no matter they're direct or indirect) may increase the cost of debt of the company. Therefore, there must be a level of debt that make the benefits of debt and potential danger of debt offset each other. In another word, the marginal revenue of debt equals the marginal cost of debt. But remember, the real cases are not as easy as we put here.Whe n a firm procures funds from investors or owners, there will be an explicit or implicit promise to pay return to them. The return is paid in terms of interest which is compulsory paid to all investors and owners, but the return paid to owners in the form of dividends is optional. The dividend decision by any firm, like the investment and financing decisions is also taken for maximization of market price of the share.The term dividend refers to that the portion of profit (after tax) which is distributed among own-ers/shareholders of the firm and the profit which is not distributed is called as retained earnings Dividend Payout Ratio is determined by the dividend policy adopted by the company, and it is im-plemented to decide about the percentage of profits to be distributed by the firm to its own-ers/shareholders. Dividend is always depends on the total profit that a firm acquired after taxes. There are a few factors that affect the Dividend policy of a company.They are Liquidity , G rowth Plans and Control Dividend Payout Ratio is also called as DP Ratio which is a mathematical value as DP Ratio = Dividend paid to the Shareholders / Net Profit after tax. Capital Structural Theories Capital structural theories are designed with a concept of valuation of the firm; it is the earnings of the firm and the investments made by the firm. Capital Structural Theories also used to find the dividend pay-out for its owners/shareholders. Cost of the capital, investment and return on investment (ROI) are a part of dividend policy.The relationship between leverage cost of capital and the value of the firm can be analysed in different ways. Factors determining Capital Structure are minimization of risk, control, flexibility and the profitability of the firm. A firm's capital structure is a combination of the firm's liabilities (debts) and the assets (equity and profits). For Example: A firm with 100 billion as capital structure has 40 billion from equity (shareholders and owner s) and the 60 million as debt (Loans and Funding), then the firm is said to be 40% – equity fi-nanced and 60% – debt financed. . Traditional Theories Net Operating Income (NOI) approach is just an opposite of NI approach. According to the NOI ap-proach, the market value of the firm depends upon the net operating income or profit and the overall cost of capital. NOI approach is based on the argument that the market values the firm as a whole for a given risk complexion. Thus, for a given value of the firm remain the same irrespective of the capital composition and instead on the overall cost of capital.Mathematically Net Operating Income (NOI) is Value of the Firm = Earnings before Tax / Cost of Equity Capital Net Operating Income approach says that an increase in debt proportion of the capital source will always result in increase of the equity proportion of the firm. Modigliani-Miller Model Modigliani-Miller model which was presented in the year of 1958 on the relatio nship of leverage, cost of capital and the value of the firm. This is widely used capital structure method to analyze the value of the firm.They have shown that the financial leverage doesn't matter and the cost of capital and the value of the firm are independent of the capital structure. Modigliani-Miller methods show that there is nothing which may be called as Optimal Capital Structure – to get high valuation of the firm. Modigliani-Miller model is based on following assumptions: 1. The capital markets are perfect and complete information is available to all the investors free of cost. The implication of this assumption is that investors can borrow and lend funds at the same rate and can move quickly from one security to another, 2.Securities are infinitely divisible; Investors are rational and well informed about the risk-return of all the securities. Modigliani-Miller model says that the total value of the firm is equal to the capitalized value of the operating earnings of the firm. The capitalization is to be made at a rate appropriate to the risk class of the firm. Growth Plans, are involved in capital structural theories in which a certain amount will be allocated for the growth plans. A finance manager should draw a plan according for the dividend policy.For Example: The firm has $10 million as equity capital and $6 million as debt capital and the firm made a profit (after tax) of $2 million, and the fund allocated to the growth plan was $1 million. For suppose there are 10,000 shareholders in the company and as per capital structural theories some amount will be allocated for the liquidity that is five hundred thousand and the remaining amount should be distributed as Dividends. In this case each shareholder or the owner will receive $50 as dividend.Capital structural theories say that if a firm is in profit and it is looking to expand the business, the profit can be rolled over to the investment option. In this case there will be no dividend s or bonuses issued to the shareholders or the owners. For Example: Low-payout consequences, which is done when the cash gets accumulated the finan-cial manager may be tempted to take on more projects that do don't meet the minimum rate of return investments. If a firm has $1 million as operating income with 1000 shareholders and firms adopts to take new projects with the profit.Then this may cause unrelated relationship balances between the share-holders and the management of the firm. Optimal Capital Structure: Even though Modigliani-Miller Model says that there is nothing like Opti-mal Capital Structure, but the non-traditional methods say that a firm can attain profits only by im-plementing Optimal Capital Structure. Some firms adopt this capital structure to minimize the risk, flexibility on the investments and the profitability.The finance manager should be able to identify that optimal point (profit point) for the firm precisely, but not to attempt to track the optimal range for the capital structure. Optimal Capital Structure differs from different firms, Existing Firm and a New Firm. For Example: Existing Firm may require additional capital funds for meeting the requirements of growth, expansion, and diversification or even for working capital management. The decision for a particular source of funds is to be taken in the totality of capital structure, i. e. n the light of the re-sultant capital structure after the proposed issue of capital or debt. The Capital Structure of the new firm is designed in the initial stages of the firm and the financial manager has to take care if many considerations, the present capital structure be designed in the light of a future target capital structure. Future plans, growth and diversifications strategies should be considered and factored in the analysis, so optimal capital structure greatly influences the divi-dend policy of any firm, depending upon there capital structure.Broadly speaking the dividend policy can b e determined by two basic analyses required to find the valuation of the proposed capital structure of the firm, i. e. one from the point of view of profitability and another from view of liquidity. Capital structure will always determine the profits of the firm and the development of the firm. Equity and Debt capital are well managed by the capital structure of the firm. A well designed capital structure will have a very good impact on the dividend policy of the company.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

What You Need to Know About the US Senate

What You Need to Know About the US Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber in the legislative branch of  the federal government. It is considered to be a more powerful body than the lower chamber, the House of Representatives. The Senate is made up of 100 members called senators. Each state is equally represented two senators, regardless of the state’s population. Unlike members of the House, who represent individual geographic congressional districts within the states, senators represent the entire state. Senators serve rotating six-year terms and are popularly elected by their constituents. The six-year terms are staggered, with about one-third of the seats up for election every two years. The terms are staggered in such a way that both Senate seats from any state are not contested in the same general election, except when necessary to fill a vacancy. Until enactment of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were appointed by the state legislatures, rather than being elected by the people. The Senate conducts its legislative business in the north wing of the U.S. Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.   Leading the Senate The Vice President  of the United States presides over the Senate and casts the deciding vote in the event of a tie. The Senate leadership also includes president pro tempore who presides in the absence of the vice president, a majority leader who appoints members to lead and serve on various committees, and a minority leader. Both parties - majority and minority- also have a whip who helps marshal senators’ votes along party lines. In presiding over the Senate, the vice president’s powers are limited by strict rules adopted by the Senate centuries ago. While present in the Senate chambers, the vice president is expected to speak only when ruling on parliamentary questions and when reporting the results of the Electoral College vote in presidential elections. On a day-to-day basis, meetings of the Senate are presided over by the president pro tempore of the Senate or, more typically, by a junior Senator designated on a rotating basis. The Powers of the Senate The Senates power derives from more than just its relatively exclusive membership; it also is granted specific powers in the Constitution. In addition to the many powers granted jointly to both houses of Congress, the Constitution enumerates the role of the upper body specifically in Article I, Section 3. While the House of Representatives has the power to recommend impeachment of a sitting president, vice president or other civic officials such as a judge for high crimes and misdemeanors, as written in the Constitution, the Senate is the sole jury once impeachment goes to trial. With a two-thirds majority, the Senate may thus remove an official from office. Two presidents, Andrew Johnson, and Bill Clinton have been tried; both were acquitted. The President of the United States has the power to negotiate treaties and agreements with other nations, but the Senate must ratify them by a two-thirds vote in order to take effect. This isnt the only way the Senate balances the power of the president. All presidential appointees, including Cabinet members, judicial appointees and ambassadors must be confirmed by the Senate, which can call any nominees to testify before it. The Senate also investigates matters of national interest. There have been special investigations of matters ranging from the Vietnam War to organized crime to the Watergate break-in and subsequent cover-up. The More Deliberate Chamber The Senate is commonly the more deliberative of the two chambers of Congress; theoretically, a debate on the floor may go on indefinitely, and some seem to. Senators may filibuster, or delay further action by the body, by debating it at length; the only way to end a filibuster is through a motion of cloture, which requires the vote of 60 senators. The  Senate Committee System The Senate, like the House of Representatives, sends bills to committees before bringing them before the full chamber; it also has committees which perform specific non-legislative functions as well. The Senates committees include: agriculture, nutrition, and forestry;appropriations;armed services;banking, housing, and urban affairs;budget;commerce, science, and transportation;energy and natural resources;environment and public works;finance;foreign relations;health, education, labor, and pensions;homeland security and governmental affairs;judiciary;rules and administration;small business and entrepreneurship;and veterans affairs. There are also special committees on aging, ethics, intelligence and Indian affairs; and joint committees with the House of Representatives. The United States Senate Fast Facts The United States Senate is part of the Legislative Branch of government and is made up of 100 members called â€Å"Senators.†Each State is represented by two Senators elected statewide, rather than by voting districts.Senators serve an unlimited number of six-year terms, staggered in a way to prevent both Senators representing a particular state from being up for reelection at the same time.The Senate is presided over by the Vice President of the United States, who as â€Å"president of the Senate,† is allowed to vote on legislation in the event of a tie vote.Along with its own exclusive powers, the Senate shares many of the same constitutional powers granted to the House of Representatives. Phaedra Trethan is a freelance writer who also works as a copy editor for the Camden Courier-Post. She formerly worked for the Philadelphia Inquirer, where she wrote about books, religion, sports, music, films, and restaurants. Updated by Robert Longley

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Biography of Marco Polo, Merchant and Explorer

Biography of Marco Polo, Merchant and Explorer Marco Polo (c.1254–January 8, 1324) was a Venetian merchant and explorer who followed in the footsteps of his father and uncle. His writings about China and the Mongol Empire in The Travels of Marco Polo had a significant impact on European beliefs about and behavior toward the East and inspired the travels of Christopher Columbus. Fast Facts: Marco Polo Known For: Exploration of the Far East and writing about his travelsBorn: c. 1254 in the city-state of Venice (modern Italy)Parents: Niccolà ² Polo, Nicole Anna DefusehDied: January 8, 1324 in VeniceEducation: UnknownPublished Works: The Travels of Marco PoloSpouse: Donata BadoerChildren: Bellela Polo, Fantina Polo, Moretta PoloNotable Quote: â€Å"I have not told the half of what I saw.† Early Years Marco Polo was born into a prosperous merchant family in 1254 in what was then the Italian city-state of Venice. His father Niccolo and uncle Maffeo had already left Venice for a trading trip before Marco was born, and Marcos mother died before the expedition returned. As a result, young Marco was raised by relatives. Meanwhile, Marcos father and uncle traveled to Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), encountering Mongol uprisings and the Byzantine re-conquest of Constantinople along the way. The brothers then headed east to Bukhara (modern-day Uzbekistan), and, from there, were encouraged to meet with the great Mongolian emperor Kublai Khan (the grandson of Genghis Khan) in his court in what is now Beijing. Kublai Khan took a liking to the Italian brothers and learned a great deal from them about European culture and technology. A few years later, Kublai Khan sent the Polo brothers back to Europe on a mission to the Pope, asking that missionaries be sent to convert the Mongols (no mission was ever sent). By the time the Polos returned to Venice the year was 1269; Niccolo discovered that his wife had died in the interim, leaving him a 15-year-old son. The father, uncle, and son got along well; two years later, in 1271, the three left Venice once again and headed east. Travels With His Father Marco, his father, and his uncle sailed across the Mediterranean Sea and then traveled overland, crossing Armenia, Persia, Afghanistan, and the Pamir Mountains. Finally, they set off across the Gobi Desert to China and Kublai Khan. The entire journey took about four years, including a period during which the group stayed in the mountains of Afghanistan while Marco recovered from illness. Despite the hardships, Marco discovered a love for travel and a desire to learn as much as he could about the cultures he encountered. Upon reaching Beijing, the Polos were welcomed to Kublai Khans legendary marble and gold summer palace, Xanadu. All three men were invited to join the emperors court, and all three immersed themselves in Chinese language and culture. Marco was appointed to become a special envoy to the emperor, which entitled him to travel throughout Asia, thus becoming the first European to see Tibet, Burma, and India. His service to the emperor was exemplary; as a result, he received the titles of governor of a Chinese city and earned a seat on the emperors council. Return to Venice After a successful stay of more than 17 years in China, the Polos had become extraordinarily wealthy. They finally left as the escorts to a Mongolian princess named Cogatin, who was to become the bride of a Persian prince. Though they had the use of a fleet of Chinese ships, hundreds of passengers and crew members died during the voyage home. When they reached Persia, the brides Persian prince had died as well, leading to a delay while the right match was found for the young princess. During the multi-year trip, Kublai Khan himself died, which left the Polos vulnerable to local rulers who exacted taxes from the Polos before they were allowed to leave. The Polos returned to Venice as strangers in their own land. When they arrived, Venice was at war with the rival city-state of Genoa. As was the custom, Marco funded his own warship, but he was captured and imprisoned in Genoa. Publication of The Travels of Marco Polo While in prison for two years, Marco Polo dictated an account of his travels to a fellow prisoner (and author) named Rusticello. In 1299, the war ended and Marco Polo was released; he returned to Venice, married Donata Badoer, and had three daughters while reviving his successful business. During this time, The Travels of Marco Polo was published in French. Published before the invention of the printing press, the book was copied by hand by scholars and monks, and each of the surviving 130 or so copies is different. Over time, the book was translated into many different languages and distributed worldwide. At the time of its publication, few readers believed that the book was literally accurate, and many questioned whether it was written by Polo or Rusticello. It seems likely that much of the book is hearsay, as it contains both first-person and third-person passages. Nevertheless, most of the books description of Kublai Kahns court and customs have been authenticated by historians. The Strange Worlds of Marco Polo In addition to accurate, first-hand descriptions of Asian customs, Marco Polos book also provided Europes introduction to paper money, coal, and other important innovations. At the same time, however, it includes stories of people with tails, lands occupied almost entirely by cannibals, and other impossible or unlikely claims. His description of coal is accurate and, in the long run, was very influential: Throughout this province there is found a sort of black stone, which they dig out of the mountains, where it runs in veins. When lighted, it burns like charcoal, and retains the fire much better than wood; inso- much that it may be preserved during the night, and in the morning be found still burning. These stones do not flame, excepting a little when first lighted, but during their ignition give out a considerable heat. On the other hand, his account of the Kingdom of Lambri (theoretically near Java) is pure fiction: Now you must know that in this kingdom of Lambri there are men with tails; these tails are of a palm in length, and have no hair on them. These people live in the mountains and are a kind of wild men. Their tails are about the thickness of a dogs. There are also plenty of unicorns in that country, and abundance of game in birds and beasts. Death Marco Polo spent his final days as a businessman, working from home. He died there at almost 70 years of age, on January 8, 1324, and was buried under the church of San Lorenzo, though his tomb has now vanished. Legacy As Polo neared death in 1324, he was asked to recant what he had written and simply said that he had not even told half of what he had witnessed. Despite the fact that many claim his book to be unreliable, it was a sort of regional geography of Asia for centuries, serving as inspiration for Christopher Columbus- who took an annotated copy along on his first voyage in 1492. Even today, it is considered one of the great works of travel literature. Sources BBC. Marco Polo. BBC History.â€Å"The Travels of Marco Polo/Book 3/Chapter 11.† Codex Hammurabi (King Translation) - Wikisource, the Free Online Library, Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.ï » ¿Khan Academy. Marco Polo.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Is the NHS doing enough to combat hospital acquired infections Essay

Is the NHS doing enough to combat hospital acquired infections - Essay Example The first is transmission from pathogens that may be found on the surface of the hands of the health personnel. Secondly, the infections can also be transmitted through dirty air purification systems, contaminated water, unhygienic staff as well as improper physical layout of the hospital leading to congestion. The level of sickness of a patient and the length of time that he stays in hospital can also facilitate the transmission of pathogens (Davey P.  2005 pp. 33-37). Clostridium difficile is the most common hospital acquired infection that causes diarrhea. It occurs as a result of toxins produced by the bacteria which cause damage to the bowel thereby causing diarrhea. It is usually spread through contamination of surfaces with the bacteria from the stool of an infected person. Prevention can be achieved through cleanliness in the hospital surfaces and most importantly, washing of hands after visiting the toilet facilities. Staphylococcus aureus is also common bacteria which are found on the skin surface as well as inside the nose of even people who are healthy. The infections on the skin are normally minor with symptoms of boils.  In more complicated situations, the bacteria may result in fever, ache and serious infections. This usually occurs amongst people who have a frail immunity. As in C. difficile prevention of its spread includes promotion of hand hygiene. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Enterococci are bacteria that are usually found in the bowels of human beings as well as the skin. The infections may crop up anyplace within in the body, such as in the intestines and the urinary tract. These infections are usually difficult to treat. Control measures include tracking incidences and reporting on regular basis (Wenzel R, 2001 pp. 22-26). Clostridium difficile and MRSA are the most common hospital transmitted infections in the United Kingdom. The two kinds of infections are usually caused by improper hygienic practices amongst the patients and

Friday, November 1, 2019

Anxiety disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Anxiety disorders - Essay Example Unlike the relatively mild, brief anxiety caused by a stressful event such as a business presentation or a first date, anxiety disorders are chronic, relentless and can grow progressively worse if not treated." (Anxiety Disorders section, para.1) One should immediately see a doctor if he or she is suffering acutely from any of the following symptoms. Panic disorder: According NIMH's website, " people with panic disorder have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning. They can't predict when an attack will occur, and many develop intense anxiety between episodes, worrying when and where the next one will strike." (Anxiety Disorders section, para. 10) One can experience panic attack any time, sometimes even during sleep. There is no specific duration of the attack. Sometimes it may last for more than half an hour, sometimes it may be of 10 minutes and sometimes even lesser. It may happen that a person experiences a panic attack only once in his lifetime. But if panic attacks are frequent then it is advisable to see a mental health care practitioner. As stated in the website of NIMH, "panic disorder is one of the most treatable of the anxiety disorders, responding in most cases to medications or carefully targeted psychotherapy."(Anxiety Disorders section, para. 18) A person can get panic attack anywhere. For example, if a person experiences a panic attack while he is swimming, he may experience a terrible fear of drowning. The long-term effect on his personality would be that he might completely avoid going near a swimming pool, sea, river or pond and in extreme cases even his bathtub. Panic disorder causes acute depression and people suffering from it even turn alcoholic or drug addict to fight their depression. Agoraphobia: According to Dr. Sanjay Chugh, " The ancient term 'agoraphobia' is translated from Greek as 'fear of an open marketplace'. Agoraphobia today describes severe and pervasive anxiety about being in situations from which escape might be difficult or avoidance of situations such as being alone outside one's home, traveling in a car, bus or airplane, or being in a crowded area." (Mind/psychology/phobia/anxiety. asp section, para.10) Therefore people suffering from agoraphobia start getting panic attacks the moment they are away from their homes or people they trust and get help from. The more the distance from their home and dear ones, the more is the intensity of their restlessness and fear. Hence, "severely agoraphobic people avoid going out altogether