Monday, January 27, 2020
Ryanair British Airways | Fare comparison Introduction This document reports the findings of a review of the economics and business literature on empirically-estimated own-price elasticity of demand for air travel for Ryan air and British Airways. It refers to the data on page two of the assignment handout to both above airlines to illustrate and explain the concepts of price elasticity of demand and income elasticity of demand. The purpose of this study is to report on all or most of the economics and business literature dealing with empirically approximate demand functions for air travel and to collect a range of fare elasticity measures for air travel provide in the data on the second page of the assignment topic and provide some judgment as to which elasticity values would be more representative of the true values to be found in different airline such as Ryan air and British airways, furthermore will evaluate the achievement of cost savings of Ryan air through fixed costs and variable costs as well as writing a critical analysis the article on BAA Airports: Ã¢â¬ËNotice of release of interim undertaking 1. Price Elasticity of Demand and Income elasticity of demand in the context of air travel demand: (Ryan air British Airways) This paragraph identifies two distinct prices for air travel which are price elasticity of demand and income elasticity of demand. Specifically, it is observed that studies of the demand for air travel demand should distinguish among prices for: Low cost carrier (LCC) example of Ryanair and Full Service Carrier (FSCs) example of British Airways in this case study; business and leisure travel; long-haul and short-haul travel; and international and European long-haul travel. Accordingly, to examine the sensitivity of the demand for air travel to its price, separate estimates of the price elasticity of demand are gathered for each of these two distinct markets. Price Elasticity of Demand Ã¢â¬ËPrice Elasticity of Demand is a numerical value which describes the degree of responsiveness of demand to changes in prices. (Andrew, D. 1988: 260) The demand for a particular good or service depends on a variety of factors. Key influences include, the levels of consumer income, the price and quality of the services in question and especially services that are close substitutes (Sloman, 2005). In order to obtain useful estimates of the price sensitivity of demand for a product, we must carefully control for all the factors affecting the demand. As a general rule, once other influences on demand stay unchanged, a higher price for a product leads in a lower quantity demanded. However, the price responsiveness of demand varies from one good to another and from one market to another (FitzRoy et al, 1998). Since the availability of alternative modes of transportation that are reasonably close substitutes for air transport diminishes with distance travelled, it is expected that the demand for air transport will be less elastic for longer flights typical example of British airways with is a FSCs than for shorter flights typical example of Ryan air. Determine the demand and for the premium value the demand is low. means that for the different strategies the demand is price strategy, in al produEach price will lead to a different level of demand and therefore have a different impact on a companys marketing objectives. The higher the prices are the lower the demand of the goods (Kotler 2002). British Airways has two types of customers: Ã · Price sensitive customers (students, independent travelers, frequently travelers) who are looking for the cheapest prices and the best offers, and Ã · Low sensitive customers (business and executive customers) who are concerned more in the quality than the price. Considering the three different pricing strategies of British Airways the demand curve will be as shown in the figure below. The price demand considers being elastic which means that for the different pricing strategies the demand is noticeable changing. For the low cost price the demand is high and for the premium value the demand is low. 2.3.3 Cost estimation British Airways estimating the cost of the products in relation with the quality its one provide. The cost of the ticket includes: Ã · The price of the service Ã · The added value (extras) Ã · The airport fees, and Ã · The travel agents extra fees However if someone book a ticket from the internet has at www.britishairways.com has a discount of Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¤10. 2.3.4 Pricing method Considering the three different types of customer, the three segments, British Airways has set a pricing method of perceived value. Perceived value is the value promised by companys value proposition and the customer must perceive this value. British Airways perceived value is made up by the companys brand mane and image, the customers image, the performance of the company and the quality of the product created by the company. 2.4 Promotional pricing British Airways has set some promotional prices on flights to some special occasion: Ã · Christmas gift voucher. The promotional offer for the Christmas known as British Airways escape ticket offers a perfect present. Flying to 14 travel zones from Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¤59 return on UK and Europe destinations and from Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¤269 return on the rest of the world. Ã · Domestic and European fares from Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¤49 return: Low fares to 135 destinations across Europe. Ã · Club World business class offer: When flying to club world business class you can upgrade to first class on a free one way ticket. 2.5 Relation within the sector The competition has increased since the introduction of the low cost airlines as easy jet and Raynair. Those airlines have achieved to sell chip tickets by eliminating all the unnecessary costs. They eliminated the intermediaries, the on board value and basically they eliminated completely the augmented product. They have concentrated just on the basic product which is the flight ticket from the on destination to the other. They using a low cost low quality pricing strategy and set a market penetration objective in order to gain more market share. The have a method of value pricing of selling their tickets, the basic, in a greater value than their competitors. Other companies with same objectives as British Airways like Lufthansa and Virgin have followed the same pricing strategies and policy. They set different price rates in relation with value added and looking after how to gain a bigger piece of the market pie. 3. Conclusion Considering the increased competition in the flying industry which is rising people expect that companies will reduce cost by providing less quality products. That is partly true considering what easy jet and Raynair has succeeded. However this is only one part of the true. Companies like British Airways fight the competition with different methods like introduction of low cost ticket where customer can still enjoy a good quality product in a low affordable price. Just considering an example where Ryanair (a low cost airline) flights to Milan from Ã £49.99 return and British Airways from Ã £628 return. The problem though with Ryanair is that you can find this cheap ticket if you book it about it well in advance. But if you try to book it on the same day before your journey the price has gone up at Ã £179.99 return when British Airways price will be still remaining the same until a week before your journey. So does it really worth flying with the low cost airlines which offer just a ticket with no allocated seat, no food or drinks and from unfrequented airports when you have a company like British Airways with so much extra for almost the same price? Thats a question that each of as has to answer on his own. Further, international travel tends to be widen over more time than domestic travel, so that the airfare is a smaller proportion of overall trip costs, which makes international travel less sensitive to changes in ticket prices. In addition, leisure travellers are more likely to postpone trips to specific locations in response to higher fares, or to shop around for those locations offering more affordable fares. Consequently, it is expected that the demand for air transport for leisure reasons will be more elastic than business travel who usually travel with FSCs. Acco rding to Anthony et al (2000) Ryan air prices management is systematically offering different prices to different customer segments in response to demand whereas (Kimes, 1989) suggests that the team in charge of yield management need to identify how changes in price will affect their customers. Within the airline industries customer demand may be higher on week ends, during Summer months, or at particular times of a day, (Belobaba, 1987). Managers must be able to forecast time-related demand so that they can make effective pricing and allocation decision to manage the shoulder periods around high demand period. However the corporate business traveller during the week becomes a leisure traveller when on holiday or at week-ends. Different occasion find the same consumer having different expectation and needs, (Buttle, 1986). Such a concept is termed elasticity of demand. According to the Data downloaded from Ryan air website giving on page two of the assignment topic the price of the flight on the day it been downloaded is far more higher than the price of the flight on other following days of the week day. However, when approaching the end of the week-end or school holiday, there is a huge demand and the increased demand drives the price up again as customer are returning from their vacation or family are going on holiday. Closer to the date and time of the scheduled service, the price rises, on the simple justification that consumers demand for a flight becomes more inelastic the nearer to the time of the service. The low cost airlines such as Ryan air follow the pricing strategy outlined above. Customers booking early with carriers such as Ryan air will normally come across lower prices if they are ready to commit themselves to a flight by booking early. This gives the airline the plus of important how full their flights are likely to be and a sou rce of cash-flow in the weeks and months prior to the service being provided. People who book late often regard travel to their planned destination as a need and they are therefore likely to be prepared and able to pay a much higher price very close to departure. Airlines call this price discrimination yield management but despite the consider name, at the heart of this pricing strategy is the straightforward but important concept price elasticity of demand. Ryanair has a seat pricing policy that causes fares to rise as a flight fills up (Ryanair.com, 2010). Following theory of supply and demand, if customer wants a seat so badly, they will pay more for it than otherwise. Income Elasticity of Demand It is defined as numerical values which describe the responsiveness of demand to a change in consumer incomes. (Sloman, 2005) Because of the recession, demand for low cost flights grew rapidly as family with higher income who were travelling with FSCs before would prefer low cost than traditional airlines and some current low cost customer with low income may prefer domestic flight or would just prefer not to travel by air. However, since elasticity is measuring proportionate change, elasticity values will change along almost all demand functions, including linear demand curves. Estimation of elasticity values is therefore most useful for predicting demand responses in the vicinity of the observed price changes. As a related issue, we recognize that in markets where price discrimination is possible comprehensive data will not allow for accurate predictions of demand responses in the relevant market segments. In air travel, FSCs are essentially joint products consisting of differentiated service bundles that are identified by fare classes. However the yield management systems employed by FSCs also create a complex form of inter-temporal price discrimination, in which some fares (typically economy class) decline and some increase (typically full-fare business class) as the departure date draws closer. This implies that ideally, empirical studies of air travel demand should separate business and leisure t ravellers or at least be able to include some information on booking times in order to account for this price discrimination, and that price data should be calibrated for inter-temporal price discrimination: for example, the use of full-fare economy class ticket prices as data will overestimate the absolute value of the price elasticity coefficient. Within the set of differentiated service bundles that comprise each (joint product) flight, the relative prices are important in explaining the relative ease of substitution between service classes. Given the nature of inter-temporal price discrimination for flights, the relative price could also change significantly in the time period prior to a departure time. In particular changes in real income and the prices of substitutes or complements will affect demand. Alternative transportation modes (road and rail) are important variables for short-haul flights, while income effects should be measured for both short and long-haul. Oum et al. (1992) provide valuable tools that occur when evaluating the demand models. Air travel demand can be affected by changes in the prices and service quality of other modes. For short-haul routes (markets) the relative price and service attributes of auto and train would need to be included in any model; particularly for short-haul markets such as low cost airline. Failure to include the price and service attributes of substitutes will bias the elasticity. For example, if airfares increase and auto costs are also increasing, the airfare elasticity would be overestimated if auto costs were excluded. The entry of low cost carriers leads to lower fares for a subset of traffic and competitors will offer a supply of seats to match these fares. Lower average fares should lead to lower demand elasticity estimates, while increases in the number of competitors in the market will lead to higher demand elasticity estimates. 2. How Ã¢â¬Ëlow cost carriers such as Ryan air able to achieve cost savings? Fixed Costs and Variable Costs. Ryan airs business model is focus around its general low cost philosophy. That is Ryan air attempts to cut all non value adding activities as it strives to drive costs down to the total minimum. Below are typical examples how it drives its downwards which include selling directly to its customer over the internet or over the phone rather than via agents and middlemen, thus saving commission cost and administrative cost. Ryan air is a ticketless as most of it customer buy over the internet, in return for a booking reference that is exchanged at the checking counter at the airport for a boarding pass. The airline has no in flight meals which is a cost saving measure that cannot be much inconvenience to its customer since all Ryan air flights are short haul. Nevertheless has subcontracted catering services on its flights where customer can buy an in flight meal and drink should they wish which is another way of driving price. Cabin crew double up as cleaner and this helps Ryan air to promise a turnaround time at any airport of 30 min rather than 45-60 min that has FSCs been the norm. Another cost cutting device, is the typical example of the UK smaller airports such as London Luton, cheaper to fly to from than bigger airports such as Heathrow which it is use at least as its base as they are less congestion and facilitate turnaround times for aircraft to be a lot shorter. Fixed Costs Fixed Costs are defined as the Total costs that do not vary with the amount of output produced (John, S. 2005:82) Ryan air as a LCC operate in the environment of high fixed cost, fixed capacity in the short term, a perishable product and seasonal demand. Virtually all of airlines costs can be considered fixed. The cost of the capital tied up in the plane, the fuel it take to fly the route, the crew it will take to staff the ground and flight operations insurance, rent, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ All these cost are fixed once the company decides to fly a particular route and the variable costs associated with serving another passenger on the flight are figure lively peanuts. Ryan air generates sufficient revenue through ancillary services such as car rentals, accommodation, currency, travel insurance, transactions, refreshments, to cover variable costs and offset at least some fixed cost. Management believes that providing these services through the internet allows Ryan air to increase sales, while at the same time reducing costs on a per unit basis. Variable Costs Variable Costs are defined as the total costs that do vary with the amount of output produced (Sloman, 2005: 82) The relatively low variable costs associated with many capacity- constrained Ryan air allow for some pricing flexibility and give operators the options of reducing pricing during low demand times. Ryan air always seeks for low variable costs. Below are factors that help Ryanair to maintain a low variable cost: * One type of aircraft, management believes that its strategy of limiting its fleet primarily to three variants of a single type of aircraft from a single manufacturer enables it to limit the costs associated with personnel training, maintenance and the purchase and storage of spare parts, as well as affording greater flexibility in the scheduling of crews and equipment. * Pricing is based strictly upon revenue maximization process that matches the aims and objectives of prices elasticity of demand * Internet booking which cut paper and administrative costs * No airport sales offices/ no cancellations * Charging a surplus for excessive baggage * Maximization of seat capacity per plane Use of less expensive airport as Ã¢â¬ËRyan air been offered incentives is a controversial one Ryan air director of communications. Ryan air further endeavours to reduce its airport charges by opting, when practicable, for less expensive gate locations as well as outdoor boarding stairs rather than more expensive jet ways. Ryan air has entered into in agreements on competitive terms with third party contractors at certain airports for traveller and aircraft handling, ticketing and other services that management believes can be more cost resourcefully provided by third parties. Management attempts to obtain competitive rates for such services by negotiating multi-year contracts at prices that are fixed or subject only to periodic increases related to inflation. One of the typical example is the price of aviation fuel which is directly related to the cost of oil but Ryan air control this through hedging. All these factors listed above contributed to a low variable cost of Ryan air, a key component in any successful yield management system and provide an opportunity for leverage against its major competitors. 3. Critical analysis of the issues involved in the following article: Ã¢â¬ËBAA Airports: Notice of release of interim undertaking Bibliography
Posted by Florene Jerome at 6:21 PM
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The New Age Employee The Human Resource issue that I will be discussing in my paper stems from the American Red Cross. The first, thing I will discuss is the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s external environment and then the HR departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s internal system. In the external environment of the American Red Cross, there are several issues affecting the organization. For example, the U.S population is becoming more diverse according to demographics. Also, the number of donors and volunteerÃ¢â¬â¢s is steadily decreasing, and the baby boomers are approaching the age of retirement. As a result, they will take with them, a large amount of the American Red Cross volunteer hours. Consequently, the American Red Cross is looking for volunteerÃ¢â¬â¢s to fill their offices nationwide. Internally there are also a lot of issues occurring within the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s human resource department. For instance, the new and younger employees coming into the organization, and they are expecting new ways of being recognized for their good work. As a result, the HR department is inventing new ways to accommodate these employees. Which requires the organization to actively go out and recruit employees. This is something that the organization has not encountered before. In my opinion, the American Red Cross should adapt to the changes in their external environment. Such as: the changes in the demographics of the employees within the organization and how those new employees affect the human resources departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s functions. Because, there are no longer just white men at the top of the organization; there are minorities and women that are in the corporate culture. As a result, it is the duty of an organization to adapt and change to its av... ...ix A. Nigro. (1994) 4th Edition.The New Public Personnel Administration. F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. 2.) Dennis L. Dresang. (1999) 3rd Edition. Public Personnel Management and Public Policy. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 3.) Library of Congress. (2000). Managing Human Resources: A Partnership Perspective. Author, Susan E. Jackson, Randall S. Schuler. South-Western College Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. 4.) Library of Congress. (2000). Managing Human Resources: A Partnership Perspective. Author, Susan E. Jackson, Randall S. Schuler. South-Western College Publishing, a division of Thomson Learning. 5.) Llyod G. Nigro, Felix A. Nigro. (1994) 4th Edition.The New Public Personnel Administration. F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc. 6.)Dennis L. Dresang. (1999) 3rd Edition. Public Personnel Management and Public Policy. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
Posted by Florene Jerome at 2:45 PM
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of my knowledge and understanding of lifespan development at the outset of course PSY 7210 Lifespan Development and at the coursesÃ¢â¬â¢ end. In this paper I will explore lifespan development by identifying and discussing the stages of development, theoretical perspectives and research related to lifespan development. I will conclude with discussing how my knowledge and understanding of lifespan development can be applied within my specialization of Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Psychology. Reflection on Lifespan Development As middle age lurked its unwanted presence I began to recognize how true and applicable the saying Ã¢â¬Å"life is too shortÃ¢â¬ applied to almost everything the average middle-aged person set to accomplish. At age 42, I have no regrets in life. My parents set the stage for my desire for achievement and accomplishment, and I set out to do the same for my children. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s lifespan is their legacy; and I strongly believe that nothing happens by chance, all things happen as a consequence of some action. For example, my enrollment in this course was the consequence of years of work in a field that I no longer hold a passion. I started career as a high school girlÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball coach and somehow 22 years later managed to service 14 years in United States Air Force; two years as a State Correctional Officer; and seven years as a State Auditor. My academic career has seen me bounce from nursing to education and finally settling with business. My most important career as a mother is about to take new direction, as my youngest children begin their collegiate journey. So the question I asked myself was Ã¢â¬Å"What do I do nowÃ¢â¬ ? I recently obtained my Masters degree in Management and Leadership and was not sure I wanted to return to school so soon; however the profession that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve longed to do for so many years required additionalÃ academic credentials. My love of teaching is why I decided to embark on my new academic journey. I have sailed through my lifespan with no regrets and surely do not want to tack any on so late in life. This course is my first course in psychology. The course material has been somewhat challenging because my background is not in psychology. My lack of foundational knowledge in psychology has required me to do a bit more than skim through scholarly literature. I feel I have a better understanding of lifespan development now than I did at the outset of this course, yet I know my journey into the world of psychology has only just begun. Lifespan Development Lifespan development is deals with understanding the growth, changes, and stability of behavior that occur throughout the lifespan. The field of lifespan development studies the patterns in physical development, cognitive development, and personality and social development that occur during the lifespan (Berk, 2007). The study of physical development examines the way in which the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s makeup determines behavior. The study of cognitive development seeks to understand how growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a personÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Personality development is the study of stability and change in the characteristics that differentiate one person from another. The study of social development examines the way in which individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions and relationships with others grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life. Those who study lifespan development approach the field from different perspectives. These perspectives are based on various developmental theories. Six major theoretical perspectives are used in lifespan development: psychodynamic perspective, behavioral perspective, cognitive perspective, humanistic perspective, contextual perspective, and evolutionary perspective. Although each has added significant value to the study of lifespan development, this paper will focus primarily on the psychodynamic, behavior, and cognitive perspectives. Psychodynamic Perspective The psychodynamic perspective focuses on the inner person (Berk, 2007).Ã Supporters of the psychodynamic perspective believe that inner forces, memories, and conflicts of which a person has little control motivate behavior throughout the lifespan (Berk, 2007). The name that comes to mind when discussing the psychodynamic perspective is Viennese physician and theorist, Sigmund Freud. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychoanalytical theory suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. Freud believed there are three aspects to the human personality: the id, ego and superego. The id is the part of personality that exists at birth. The id operates on what Freud calls the pleasure principle (Berk, 2007, p. 15), which drives the innate need to maximize good feelings and minimize bad feelings. The rational and reasoning aspect of personality is called the ego. The reality principle (Berk, 2007, p. 15) regulates the ego. Freud classified a personÃ¢â¬â¢s conscience as the superego. The superego guides a person through the journey between right and wrong. In addition to his theory on the different parts of human personality Freud also formulated theory to explain the manner in which personality develops during the lifespan. According to Freud (Berk, 2007) Ã¢â¬Å"psychosexual development occurs as children pass through a series of stages in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part.Ã¢â¬ The stages of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual development include the oral stage, the anal stage, and the phallic stage. The oral stage takes place during the first year of life. Freud believed during this stage all needs are satisfied orally or through the mouth; for example, eating and drinking. The anal stage takes place during the second year of life. During this stage the battle between control and letting go begins. The phallic stage takes place during the third and fifth years of life. During this stage a child develops a fixation with the genitals. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosexual stages focus on developmental changes in the first 5 years of life and transformation of the id. Psychoanalyst Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial theory is also part of the psychodynamic perspective. According to Erikson (Berk, 2007) society and culture have an influence on human development. In contrast to Freud whose theory that proposed development was complete by adolescence (Berk, 2007), EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory argues that development is continuous throughout the lifespan and occurs in eight stages. The first stage of development, trustÃ versus mistrust, occurs during infancy (birth to 1-year-old). During this stage if an infantÃ¢â¬â¢s basic needs are met by a responsive and attentive caregiver, the infant will begin to trust the caregiver, thus establishing the foundation for future trust relationships. In contrast if an infant does not receive enough or irregular care, or if caregivers are unresponsive, the infant can develop mistrust. The autonomy versus shame and doubt is the next stage, which occurs between the first and third years of life. According to Erikson successful development through one stage is essential for an individual to pass on to the next stage of development. For example, if an infant does not establish trust for itÃ¢â¬â¢s caregiver during the trust versus mistrust stage, then it will be difficult to establish a sense of autonomy (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the next stage of EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial theory. During the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage a child begins to develop its independence. Physical and cognitive growth and control during this stage afford a child the desire and ability to explore outside the comfort and security of his or her parental safe haven. Parents who are overprotective and do not allow their children to explore their independence risk their child developing issues with their self-esteem and confidence. If not allowed to explore independent of the parental structure a child could begin to doubt her ability and feel shameful for not being able to accomplish expected tasks. The initiative versus guilt stage occurs during early childhood. During this stage a child begins to develop social skills and learns to manage her behavior. The concept of what is right or wrong is factored into a childÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to exhibit certain behavior in social settings. Interaction with peers and individuals outside the family structure has a major influence on development during this stage. Guilt from further exploration of independence may occur if caregivers criticize the childÃ¢â¬â¢s methods of exploration. The industry versus inferiority stage is the development period that occurs during adolescence. During this stage of development adolescent self-awareness and intellectual skills are heightened (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). The identity versus role confusion is the stage of development in which adolescents explore self or role identity. The adolescent begins to define who she is and what she wants to do in life. In contrast to self-awareness adolescents may experience roleÃ confusion during this stage. Some adolescents will have trouble establishing the level of self-understanding necessary for positive life direction. The intimacy versus isolation stage of development is the period of development where intimate relationships are formed; young adults develop meaningful friendship, fall in love, and establish relationship skills that will impact their ability to form future relationships. Adolescents who fail to establish a sense of trust for their environment may have trouble in establishing intimate relationships. The generativity versus stagnation stage of development occurs during middle adulthood. During this stage of development an adult begins to evaluate how her past and present behavior impact the lives of others, rather than focusing only on her personal wants and needs (life). The final stage of EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stages of development is the ego integrity versus despair stage, which occurs during late adulthood. This stage is the time for reflection. An adult evaluates life choices and assess whether goals and dreams were fulfilled or whether life choice have left her with regrets. Psychodynamic theory centers on development relative to the unconscious mind. Freud argues that development is complete by adolescence and that unconscious behavior affects development; where as Erikson suggests development is a continuous process throughout the lifespan and occurs in eight stages. Each theorist has contributed important information to the understanding of lifespan development. According to Berk (2010), psychoanalytical theory provides a strong basis for understanding past behavior but does not do a very good job with predicting future behavior. Behavioral Perspective Behavioral theorists argue that individuals do not pass through stages of development but rather development is based on observable behaviors influenced by stimuli in the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ environment (Feldman, 2006). Furthermore behavioral theorist suggests that nurture rather than nature is more significant to human development. The behavioral perspective views development from a more personal perspective. Unlike psychoanalytical theorists that believe each person will pass through the same stage of development at approximately the same stage in life; behavioral theoristsÃ believe that development is different for each person, given that each person will respond to her environment in a different way. Behaviorism rejects the psychoanalytical theory of studying the unconscious mind to understand human development (Feldman, 2006). Behaviorism focuses on things that can be seen Ã¢â¬â social and cultural cues, human action and reaction and other observable aspects of the external environment. Unlike psychoanalytical theorist who believed that development is discontinuous Ã¢â¬â occurring in distinct stages; behavioral theorists believe that development is a continuous process Ã¢â¬â gradual levels of achievement building on previous level (Feldman, 2006). Research conducted by Psychologist Ivan Pavlov, John Watson and B. F. Skinner set the foundation for Behaviorism. Through PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s research with dogs the principle of classical conditioning was discovered. Pavlov found that he could acquire the same behavior from the dog (salivation) produced by a specific stimulus (food) by associating the original stimulus with another stimulus (a bell) (Santrock, MacKenzie-Rivers, Malcomson & Ho Leung, 2011). Watson conducted similar research involving the principle of classical conditioning except he used human beings as his test subjects. Watson conducted an experiment where he gave an infant a rat to assess he fear of the creature. Once it was determined that the infant was not afraid a loud noise was sounded each time the infant was allowed to play with the rat. The noise did frighten the infant. After this coupling of the rat and loud noise was accomplished a few times the infant began to develop a fear of not only the loud noise but also the rat. Watson concluded that the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of the rat was the result of classical conditioning (Santrock et al., 2011). Skinner took a different approach to his research and set out to understand the principle of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning suggest that certain behaviors are associated with certain consequences, for example, if a parent wants a child to behave the parent could give the child some type of reward that would induce good behavior. Most are familiar with the later principle of operant conditioning; many aspects of human behavior are controlled by some type of reward and punishment system (Santrock et al, 2011). Cognitive Perspective The cognitive perspective focuses on the development of human understanding.Ã Cognitive theory is constructed around the conscious mind rather than the unconscious mind (psychoanalytical theory). Theories that have added value to cognitive perspective are PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory, VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-cultural cognitive theory, and the information-processing approach. This paper will only touch on PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development theory. PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development (Santrock et al., 2011, p. 40). The four stages are the sensorimotor stageÃ¢â¬âuse of the senses and movements in infancy to explore the world; preoperational stage Ã¢â¬â use of words and images, symbolic but illogical thinking of preschool aged children; concrete operational stageÃ¢â¬âorganized logic and reasoning of school-aged children; and formal operational stageÃ¢â¬âcomplex, abstract reasoning system of the adolescent and adult (Berk, 2007, p. 19). The four stages involve a pattern or organization and adaptation. IndividualsÃ¢â¬â¢ organize past experiences in a manner that helps them understand the world, while adapting to new experiences. Piaget suggests that this process of organization and adaptation is continuous throughout the lifespan because the way human beings think is in constant evolution. As we age our experiences grow, as does our brain. For example, a child perception of where babies come from will no doubt change over the course of his or her lifetime, yet if you ask a child where babies come from the child will try to associate what he or she understands about babies to answer your questions. The common response usually has to do with two people loving each other; yet many find as they get older love has very little to do with where babies come from. The cognitive perspective contributed to lifespan development the concept that learning begins well before human beings can formulate words. Where an infant will use its body and immature sound to communicate its needs an adult will use reasoning and logic to get its way. Stages of Lifespan Development Development throughout the lifespan is divided into periods: the prenatal period (conception to birth); infancy period (birth to three years old); early childhood (three to six years old); middle childhood (six to 12 yearsÃ old): adolescence (12 to 20 years old); early adulthood (20 to 40 years old); middle adulthood (40 to 60 years old); and late adulthood (60 years old to death). Each period is characterized with specific physical and cognitive growth and developmental changes. This part of the paper will define each period of development and examine theory and research relative to the period. Prenatal Development The importance of preconception health has been far overlooked. As the mother of three, when my spouse and I began to discuss the possibility of having a baby one of my first thoughts was whether I was healthy enough to conceive. I believe once an individual or couple make the decision to conceive the importance of his or her (their) preconception health is removed from the equation, even though preconception health has a major impact on prenatal development. There is not much research on the importance of preconception health and care; however, over recent years with an increase in adolescent pregnancy and pre-term births that has changed drastically (Dean, Bhutta, Mason, Howson, Chandra-Mouli, Lassi & Iman, 2012). Proper health care prior to conception will improve the chances for successful prenatal development. The prenatal period encompasses the most rapid phase of development of our lives, beginning as a single cell and ending as a newborn baby emerging into the world (Slater & Lewis, 2006, p.41). The prenatal period sets the foundation for future development. The prenatal period begins with conceptions and ends with birth. The prenatal period is divided into three stages: the germinal stage, the embryonic stage, and the fetal stage (as cited in Slater & Lewis, 2006, p. 42). In the germinal period the sperm fertilizes the egg. The union of the sperm and egg takes place in the fallopian tubes. During ovulation an egg is released from the ovary and enters the fallopian tubes. Sperm journey up the fallopian tube to meet the egg. This meeting results in the formation of a single-celled organism called a zygote. The zygote journeys down the fallopian tube to the uterus where it implants. The germinal period last approximately 2 weeks. The embryonic stage begins during the middle of the second week and concludes at the end of the eighth week, at which time the physical appearance of theÃ embryo is clearly human (Slater & Lewis, 2006, p. 43). The embryonic stage is considered the most critical stage of prenatal development. It is during this time that all the major organs of the body begin to form. At the conclusion of this stage the embryo is transformed into the fetus. The fetal stage follows from the end of the embryonic stage, beginning at nine weeks and ending with the onset of labor and birth of the baby (Slater & Lewis, 2006, p. 44). During this stage the fetus head, eyes, genitals, fingers and toes all under go massive growth. .r The image of a human being is undeniably visible. The prenatal period is the most vulnerable period of human development. Not only is the physical health of the parents important to fetal development but the prenatal environment (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) also has an impact on prenatal development. The prenatal environment is a blend of both internal and external parts; the internal being the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb and the external all elements outside the womb Ã¢â¬â physical environment and social and cultural factors (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). Research has long debated the influence nature versus nurture has on prenatal development. The question remains how much of development is influenced by genetics (nature) and how much is influenced by environment (nurture) (Slater & Lewis, 2006). It would make sense to view the prenatal period as being heavily influenced by genetics; however environmental factors actually influence development just as much as genetics. There is a clear balance between genetic and environmental influences during prenatal development. Genetics direct physical growth and development, where as environmental factors influence physical growth and development. These environmental factors called teratogens can cause serious damage during prenatal development. Environmental substances and agents (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) such as alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs cause serious harm to an unborn fetus. Women who consume alcohol during pregnancy are at risk of having an infant who suffers from fetal alcohol syndrome. Mothers who use tobacco products during pregnancy risk having a pre-term baby or infant with low birth weight. Environmental factors also include socioeconomic and cultural factors. Women who live in low-income communities are at risk of not getting enough to eat or proper medical care during pregnancy. PoorÃ nutrition and inadequate medical care could result in pre-term birth or infant low birth weight. Stress is also an environmental factors. Women who are subjected to daily distress can pass the effects of stress onto their unborn child. Children born to mothers who suffered from depression and other stress related issues were found to be emotional, psychological and developmentally challenged. Children who suffer from Attention Deficit Disorder present an example of how maternal stress during pregnancy can impact the physical development. Adequate nutrition, routine medical care and maternal psychological and emotional well being are essential to reduce the influence external factors have on prenatal development. How a fetus develops during the prenatal period will have a immense impact on the subsequent periods of development. Infancy The infancy period of human development begins at birth and ends at the approximate age of three. Parent-child bonding is essential during the infancy period. Infancy is the period of development in which a human being relies completely caregivers for all its basic needs, as such, infancy is marked as the period in which human beings develop trust for others and for their environment. According to Erikson (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) during this period infants must resolve the crisis of trust versus mistrust (p. 9). Human beings undergo a significant amount of physical and cognitive development during the infancy period. During infancy, interaction with caregivers sets the emotional foundation for all future relationships. Cognitive, motor, and social/emotional development are also developmental milestones that occur during the infancy period. Many Ã¢â¬Ëfirst-timeÃ¢â¬â¢ developmental events occur during infancy. InfantsÃ¢â¬â¢ learn various skills such as crying, nursing and coordination; these learned skills ensure the infantsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to satisfy his/her attachment needs by soliciting the nurturing attention from caregivers. During infancy an emotional and physical attachment is established between an infant and its caregiver(s). According to Bowlby (Delius, Bovenschen, Spangler, 2008; Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) attachment theory is the theory of social-emotional development; where infants develop a bond with the primary caregiver(s) and a sense of security within their environment. The attachment relationship that develops between infant and caregiver will set the foundation for allÃ future relationships, as such, any deviation from a healthy attachment relationship can have an adverse affect on the infants future relationships. A study by Bates, Maslin, & Frankel (Year), found a direct correlation between a childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to self-regulate his/her behavior and the mother-child attachment relationship established during infancy. Early Childhood Human infants are the most vulnerable and helpless of any other species at birth; however cognitive, physical and emotional development during the infancy period is what helps bring the human infant to developmental par. Early childhood is the period of development where extensive cognitive, emotional, physical and social growth occurs. The early childhood period begins at age three and last until around six years old. The early childhood period marks the start of school for most children. Children begin to explore their environment and reach for more autonomy and independence. Cognitive skills continue to develop and children begin to develop a sense of self during early childhood. Children begin to learn the physical differences between self and others. Children learn social appropriateness and begin the journey of peer interaction. During this stage children may experience behavior problems as they attempt to develop their social skills and independence. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s during this st age that children begin to interact more frequently with individuals outside the family structure. Exposure to other children, cultures, values and environments can have a negative impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Middle Childhood The middle childhood period begins at age six and ends around the age of 12 or 13. For most children, middle childhood begins the journey to independence and self-awareness/actualization. Children begin to develop concrete likes and dislikes. Boys show signs of increased gross motor coordination and girls show signs of increased fine motor coordination. At this time some children will begin playing sports or participate in extracurricular activities such as music lessons, little league or girls scouts. Emotional and biological changes and continued cognitive development also occur during middle childhood. The onset of puberty is common during middle childhood. Children develop gender specific roleÃ identities and sexual identity/orientation may also develop. Middle childhood also marks the beginning of peer pressure and self-esteem issues. Adolescence Adolescence can be a very emotional and challenging period of development. It begins around the age of 12-13 and last until age 20. Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Individuals continue to aggressively reach for more independence from family. Adolescence is marked with more physical changes/development. For late bloomers, the onset of puberty may not occur until adolescence. Identity and gender conflict are common issues of adolescence. Adolescence continues the exploration of sexuality (sexual preference and sexual orientation). Culture begins to have a significant influence on gender role identity. In many cultures, adolescence marks the ascension into adulthood. Adolescence can be a time of great conflict when cultural views on gender roles and identity do not match with a childÃ¢â¬â¢s maturity level. Parents and authority figures begin to few adolescents as pseudo-adults. Parental expectations are high and some adolescents do not possess a level of maturity that meets parental standards. The conflict of almost being an adult can cause rebellious and risky behavior in some adolescents. Adolescents are more prone to illegal substance use, violent behavior, illegal behavior, and sexual promiscuity. Erikson suggests that adolescence is the stage of development that is plagued with the most crises and success through this stage requires a healthy and stable environment. Early Adulthood Early adulthood begins around the age of 20 and last well into the 40s. Early adults are focused on friendships, intimate relationships, child bearing and careers. During early adulthood a person might experience physical, emotional or psychological issues such as depression or chemical dependency. Physical development is at its peak by early adulthood; however cognitive skills continue to develop. Individuals begin to take on new roles and identities in their personal and professional lives. Morals and values begin emerge (independent of parental influences). One of the major milestones of early adulthood is falling in love. An individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to successfully develop and maintain an intimate adult relationship willÃ depend significantly on the attachment relationships developed during infancy. According to Broderick & Blewitt (2010) childhood attachment theory provides a useful framework for conceptualizing adult intimacy (p. 382). EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s sixth stage of development, intimacy versus isolation is another theoretical view on the process of establishing intimate relationships in early adulthood. Erikson suggests (Broderick & Blewitt, 20100) that young adults are internally driven to establish intimate relationships by their need for generativity (p. 381). Middle Adulthood Middle adulthood begins at the age of 40 and last until the age of 60-65. Middle adulthood marks the time of new beginnings for a lot of people. Middle age finds many people divorced, starting new careers, going back to school and even starting families for the first or second time. Stay at home parents are entering the workforce for the first time or returning back to work after raising their family. Middle adulthood marks the beginning of the loss of friends and family due to illness (death). Middle adulthood brings changes in physical appearance and ability (menopause, hair loss, impotenceÃ¢â¬ ¦). Individuals begin to find a sense of community during middle adulthood; volunteering their time and resources for various community and/or humanitarian causes. Health issues are also a factor during middle adulthood. The onset of physical and emotional illness has a significant impact on the quality of life during middle adulthood. According to Erikson, individuals experience the seventh stage of development, generativity versus stagnation, during middle adulthood. Generativity refers to an individuals need to guide and mentor younger generations to leading and developing meaningful lives, in contrast to stagnation which refers to an individuals feeling he or she has done nothing to give back to or help the next generation. Late Adulthood Late adulthood begins around the age of 60-65 and last until death. More physical and health related issues occur during late adulthood. Loss of friends and family to illness and natural causes is more frequent and common during late adulthood. Changes in cognitive ability due to mental illness (dementia, AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s) manifest during late adulthood. Late adulthood marks the time of retirement for many individuals. Late adulthood marks the period of senescence Ã¢â¬â the process of aging (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). As an individual gets older changes in food consumption and metabolism result in changes in weight. Also, changes in of the tissue and bone density in addition to compression of the spinal cord result in changes in height. As the body begins to degenerate an individual is more susceptible to illness and disease. More common physical changes of aging include hair, hearing and tooth loss, and wrinkling and reduced physical strength. Developmental changes in the brain are also part of the aging process. During middle to late adulthood an individual will begin to experience some loss of memory (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). It becomes difficult to remember minor details of past and/or immediate events. Other effects of aging include changes in mental health. Many older individuals suffer from chronic mental illnesses such as dementia or AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. As an individual gets older he or she may find it difficult to physically do many of the things he or she did during adolescence or middle adulthood. Because of these new age imposed restrictions many individuals experience and/or suffer from mental and emotional illness. Getting older can limit or change a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ social life, as such, many people become discourage and/or depressed because of physical limitation due to aging. During late adulthood individuals enter EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s eight stage of development, integrity and despair. According to Erickson for most individuals late adulthood is a time for reflection. An individual looks back upon his or her life to access whether life was good and filled with happiness or whether life is laced with countless regret. Knowing what I know Ã¢â¬â Applying Lifespan Development to Industrial-Organizational Psychology Industrial-Organizational (I-O) Psychology is the study of the workplace. I-O psychologist apply methods of psychology to issues of business, talent management, coaching, assessment, selection, training, organizational development, performance, and work-life balance (www.siop.org, nd). Ã¢â¬Å"Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychologists study human behavior in the workplace. I/O psychology is an applied discipline that seeks to improve organizational behavior, attitudes, performance, and results. I/O psychologists are trained in the disciplines of organization change andÃ development, leadership effectiveness, work motivation, training and employee development, human performance improvement, job analysis, performance appraisal, personnel selection research, test development, research methods, and statistics. I/O psychologists are employed in business and industry, consulting firms, non-profit organizations, government agencies, the military, and academe. Through their research and performance improvement interventions, I/O psychologists improve the bottom line of the organization by helping the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s leaders select the right people, train and develop people effectively, motivate employees, improve individual and group performance, and reward empl oyees appropriatelyÃ¢â¬ (http://www.latech.edu, nd) So how can studying lifespan development benefit the professional career of an I-O psychologist? My ultimate professional goal is to teach at the university level. But while I work my way towards gaining the knowledge and skills necessary for a career in academics I would like to direct my attention to making the workplace a better place for the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) community. As a member of the LGBT community I have witness blatant acts of discrimination against LGBT employees and watched some many tolerate a hostile and unhealthy work environment. I would like to help organizations establish programs that educate employees about the LGBT community, specifically the psychology aspect of coming out. For many of my LGBT colleaguesÃ¢â¬â¢ coming out is a two-fold process; a person first comes out to family and friends and then must make the decision of coming out in the workplace. The psychological trauma associated with coming out in the workplace has an impact, not only on the person coming out, but on the organization as a whole. I believe educating employees about selfÃ¢â¬âpersonal morals, values and religious beliefs is a good place to start in the fight against LGBT workplace discrimination. It is the personal morals, values, and religious beliefs that allow people to form opinions about LGBT individuals. So how will I apply my knowledge of lifespan development? Through my study of lifespan psychology I gained a better understanding of how the varies stages of life can influence how a person thinks or reacts to a situation. There is no right age of coming out and in my experience coming out can happen in any stage of life. The knowledge I gained about the various stages of life will help me in developing a program gearedÃ around these stages. I would also like to provide career counseling for LGBT youth. The adolescent years are already a confusing time, coupled with the idea that one might be homosexual; this may leave some LGBT youth in limbo about what they want to do with their lives. Current LGBT youth programs are geared towards helping youth understand their sexuality, but drop the ball on helping the individual understand how to live as an openly gay adult. Overall the knowledge I gained from this course will help me to better understand why human being do the things they do and how I can help them do things better. I have a better understanding of the various changes that occur throughout the lifespan and as an I-O psychologist I can apply this knowledge to improving the workplace for individuals in all stages of life. References Baltes, B. B., & Dickson, M. W. (2001). Using Life-Spa Models in Industrial-Organizational Psychology: The Theory of Selective Optimization With Compensation. Applied Development Science. 5(1), 51-62. Benson, P., Galbraith, J., & Espeland, P. (1994). What kids need to succeed: Proven, practical ways to raise good kids. Minneapolis: Free Spirit Publishing. Berk, L. E. (2007). Development through the lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Berkowitz, M., & Grych, J. (1998). Fostering goodness: Teaching parents to facilitate childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s moral development. Journal of Moral Education, 27(3), 371-391. Bono, G. & Froh, J. (2009). Gratitude in school: Benefits to students and schools. In R. Gilman, E, Huebner, & M. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology in the schools (pp. 77-88). New York: Routledge. Broderick, P. C. & Blewitt, P. (2010). The Life Span: Human development for helping professionals (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc. Courage, M. L., & Howe, M. L. (2002). From infant to child: The dynamics of cognitive change in the second year of life. Psychological Bulletin, 128(2), 250-277. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.2.250 Dean, S., Bhutta, Z., Mason, E. M., Howson, C., Chandra-Mouli, V., Lassi, Z., & Iman, A., (2012). Care before and between pregnancy (Born to Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth). Retrieved from The Partnership fro Maternal, Newborn and Child Health website: http://www.who.int/pmnch/media/news/2012/preterm_birth_report/en/index.html Feldman, R. S. (2006). Development across the life span. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Heckhausen, J., & Schulz, R. (1995). A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102(2), 284-304. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.102.2.284 Hepper, P. G., (2006). Prenatal Development. In A. Slater & M. Lewis (Eds.), Introduction to Infant Development (pp. 41-62). Retrieved from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199283057/slater_chap03.pdf Huitt, W. (2010). A holistic view of education and schooling: Guiding students to develop capacities, acquire virtues, and provide service. Paper presented at the 12th Annual International Conference sponsored by the Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), May 24-27, Athens, Greece. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/holistic-view-of-schooling.pdf Louisiana Technical University, (nd). What is I-O Psychology. Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. Retrieved from http://www.latech.edu/education/psychology/graduate/industrial_organizational_psychology/internship/Brochure.pdf McElwain, N. L., Booth-LaForce, C., & Wu, X. (2011). InfantÃ¢â¬âmother attachment and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s friendship quality: Maternal mental-state talk as an intervening mechanism. Developmental Psychology, 47(5), 1295-1311. doi:10.1037/a0024094 McCrae, R. R., Costa, P. r., Ostendorf, F., Angleitner, A., HÃ â¢ebÃ Ã kovÃ ¡, M., Avia, M. D., & Ã¢â¬ ¦ Smith, P. B. (2000). Nature over nurture: Temperament, personality, and life span development. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 78(1), 173-186. doi:10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52 Rothbart, M. K., & Ahadi, S. A. (1994). Temperament and the development of personality. Journal Of Abnormal Psychology, 103(1), 55-66. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.103.1.55 Santrock, J., MacKenzie-Rivers, A., Malcomson, T., & Ho Leung, K. (2011). Life-Span Development (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Pyerson.
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Friday, January 3, 2020
Child abuse is a worldwide problem. According to the Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, it is interpreted as any recent act of failure to act the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation, which is an action or the failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. Abuse comes in many forms such as: emotional, physical, sexual, verbal and neglect. Neglect is the failure to care properly; It has been proven as the most common form of maltreatment. Furthermore, some foresee physical abuse is just getting bruised up or thrown around or hurt in an aggressive way; however, physical abuse can not only be physically traumatizing, but also emotionally traumatizing. Physical assaults are usually paired with verbal insults and unreasonable expectations. Although it is difficult to detect a child abuser, the problem is more frequent than many people think and abuse of a minor in any way is extremely perv erse. Many problems of child abuse are demonstrated in various manners, all which are horrendous, but some worse than others. Detecting that a child is living in an unsafe environment or being harmed in any way is very difficult. This is why there are so many children being hurt today. Abuse can take place in a child s home, in organizations, schools or communities that children interact with. Abuse to a child in any way can in fact affect the children in their futures. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"An infantShow MoreRelatedChild Abuse Is A Worldwide Problem1037 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesafraid to go home because of what awaits. Child abuse is a worldwide problem and it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter what age, religion, gender, or ethnicity you are, it happens everywhere. It is neglecting, emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment. 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That bothers me wondering he is a bad or good person which still haunts me. My problem is I have no cell phone to call or to take picture which is worth a thousand words that led me to wonder how common is child abuse, sex trafficking and what are we dealing with. It is a ongoing worldwide problem and very profitable for the crime organizationsRead MoreChild Victims of Domestic Violence1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃâ¢ssay Child victims of domestic violence Family today are unfortunately less as a fundamental unit of a healthy society. Almost all countries in the world are faced with the inability to determine the number of victims of kriminalitetot, and especially when such women. According to UN studies, women are the most frequent victims of sexual violence (50%) attacks of personality (10%) and other attacks on property (10%). For nasilonichkiot kriminalitet family largely lacks
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