Wednesday, July 31, 2019

William Ellsworth Dummy Hoy

William Ellsworth Hoy was the first and only accomplished deaf person to play Major League Baseball. Mr. Hoy was born on the 23rd of May in 1862 in Houck town, Ohio, this is where he got the nickname â€Å"Dummy†. In today’s society calling him that name would not be acceptable, but back then dummy meant somebody who could not speak. When people called him William, Billy or Bill he corrected them because he preferred Dummy. At the age of 2 he was diagnosed with Spinal Meningitis, this caused him to lose his hearing and since he was so young he could not learn how to speak. But this did not stop him, he proved everybody wrong, he graduated valedictorian from Columbus’s Ohio School for the Deaf and began his professional baseball career in 1886 for the Oshkosh Club in Wisconsin and was paid $85 a month. Dummy was a great baseball player, he played center field for several teams from 1888-1902, the most notably team was the Cincinnati Reds. Some sources claim that he is the reason why baseball today uses signals and signs, because he could not hear the umpire so he taught his coaches to use signals to let him know if it was a ball or strike or even the umpires to let him know if he was out or safe. Dummy died at the age of 99 on December 15, 1961 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Today there is a group of people who are trying to get him elected into the Baseball Hall Of Fame in Cooperstown, NY. His contribution to society and baseball was huge, he let people know whether your deaf or have a any disability you can still make your dreams come true as long as you try and never give up. I think somebody like this should definitely be in the Baseball Hall Of Fame, he brings honor back to game that is full or greed and selfishness.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

American Heart Association

According to American Heart Association website aha. org, lack of information about heart disease led to the thinking that a heart patient was doomed and ought to take complete bed rest.In 1915 a pioneering group of physicians and social workers formed an Association for â€Å"Prevention and Relief of Heart Disease in New York City† and investigate the possibility of their return to work. In 1920s these groups evolved into heart associations in Boston, Philadelphia and Chicago. In 1924 six cardiologists namely Dr. Lewis A. Conner and Dr. Robert H.  Halsey of New York; Dr. Paul D.White of Boston; Dr. Joseph Sailer of Philadelphia; Dr. Robert B. Preble of Chicago; and Dr. Hugh D. McCulloch of St. Louis affiliated to different groups founded a national organization – American Heart Association to â€Å"share research findings and promote further study. † In addition Dr. James B. Herrick of Chicago and Dr. William S. Thayer of Baltimore were instrumental in early p lanning. In 1946 AHA received $50,000 donation from American Legion for conducting research and â€Å"develop a community rheumatic fever program.† In 1948 AHA reorganized by recruiting non-medical volunteers with skills in business management, communication, public education, community organization and fund raising to broaden its scope and operations. Later this year AHA made public debut through network radio contest programs â€Å"The Walking Man,† on the â€Å"Truth or Consequences† hosted by Ralph Edwards receiving contributions and guesses from millions of Americans earning $1. 75 million and identifying Jack Benny as the â€Å"Walking Man. † American Heart Association divisions were organized all over the country by a small national staff in New York City.A first national fund-raising campaign was launched in February 1949 and an amount of $2. 7 million was raised. Since then the organization has developed in leaps and bounds in all respects such a s financial resources, involving medical and non-medical volunteers, size and influence. The National Center of AHA was shifted to Dallas in 1975 from New York City for serving the affiliates and local divisions in a better way. These affiliates are led by volunteers and form a national network of local AHA organizations involved in various activities such as research, education, community programs and fund raising for the organization.The organization laid emphasis on cardiovascular science, cardiovascular education, community programs and fund raising efforts. AHA could achieve better research standards, newer healthcare site modules and also developed various new cookbooks. Inclusion of women and minorities in the leadership ranks paid off by providing a chance to understand impact of heart disease and stroke on women and minorities. The organization created new divisions for dealing with stroke and emergency cardiac care.In order to economize and provide wider publicity the asso ciation decided to outsource the scientific journals and publish them online. In March 1995 the AHA adopted a strategic driving force which describes the usage resources to support its mission. The driving force can be described in five parts as follows: †¢ Credible information services and products on heart disease and stroke †¢ Multiple distribution channels to meet customers’ needs †¢ Consumer markets restricted to the United States †¢ Prioritization relative to risk †¢ Science and community mobilization as foundation.The strategic driving force of the organization can be described as â€Å"Effecting change by providing information and solutions for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in people of all ages, with special emphasis on those at high risk. † Impact goal of the organization is to reduce coronary heart disease, stroke and risk to 25 per cent by the year 2010. Indicators of the impact goal being the fo llowing: ? Reduced death rate from coronary heart disease and stroke by 25 percent ? Reduced prevalence of smoking, high blood cholesterol and physical inactivity by 25 percent? Reduced rate of uncontrolled high blood pressure by 25 percent ? Elimination of the growth of overweight and diabetes. The AHA has its National Center at Dallas, Texas and 12 affiliate offices covering the US and Puerto Rico with the operations being divided into seven main areas as stated below (a rough outline of each area are mentioned below): 1. Office of the CEO: Administration, Communications, Legal, Food Certification and Consumer publications. 2. Advocacy: Public Advocacy (Washington, D. C. ), Health Initiatives and Field Advocacy (State/Local Public Policy) and Minority initiatives.3. Corporate Operations: Finance, Human Resources, Production and Distribution and Audit and Consulting Services. 4. Field Operations and Development: Development, Major Donor Development, Corporate Relations, Strategic A ccounts, Emergency Cardiovascular Care Programs and American Stroke Association. 5. Healthcare Markets: American Stroke Association, Strategic Alliances, and Patient Education. 6. Science Operations: Research Administration and Scientific Publishing, Science and Medicine, Professional Education, Scientific Meetings and Marketing and Patient Education.7. Technology and Customer Strategies: Customer Relations, Digital Strategies and Information Technology. Three stake holders affected due to agency’s action include American Stroke Association, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and the organizations publishing the scientific journals for AHA. In concluding remarks I would like to state that American Heart Association as discussed above has risen from a small association to a major one with well planned set of activities and functions.The organizational structure depicts stability with excellent services to mankind and is bound to gain recognition internationally in times to come. References History of the American Heart Association. American Heart Association (2007). Retrieved on February 09, 2007 from: http://www. americanheart. org/presenter. jhtml? identifier=10860 Organizational Structure. American Heart Association (2007). Retrieved on February 09, 2007 from: http://www. americanheart. org/presenter. jhtml? identifier=11282

Top Reasons for Choosing a Degree in Medical

Top Reasons For Choosing A Degree In Medical Office Management Aletha McTigrit Kaplan 2012 ? Medical office management jobs are one of the fastest growing professions in the health industry in 2012 predicted to grow as much as 22% in the next 8 years. If you have a desire to work in the medical field but like myself don’t want to work with patients directly, medical office management is a profession you should consider. What is a medical office manager? How much can they earn? What type of person would be a good candidate for a medical office manager position? What would be their responsibilities?How can a person become a medical office manager, and what are some the current issues affecting medical office managers today are just some of the questions I am prepared to answer. Medical office managers are responsible for the non-clinical day to day operations designed to improve and maintain productivity in practices that provide healthcare services. Medical office managerâ€⠄¢s salaries vary state by state depending on the area where you intend to work although according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics the median salary for a medical office manager in 2010 holding a bachelor’s degree or higher in a large city was about 86,300 a year.Medical office managers need to be proficient communicator with good human resource abilities who are able to communicate with people from all areas of life; He or she must also be honest, fair, and dependable(Hicks, 2012). Working as an administrator or manager in any type of office has its challenges. Office managers have a large array of duties for which they are responsible that must be accomplished on a daily basis and depending on the size of the organization in which they are employed, some of these duties may include selecting, hiring and training other employees, managing inventory and being solely responsible for bookkeeping,. ut working as an office manager in a medical facility can also include other du ties such as managing the schedules of all the doctor’s that work in the office, addressing complaints made by doctors, staff, patients or insurance companies, supervising patient scheduling, sending out appointment reminders, maintaining confidentiality with patient records as well as staying informed of new laws and regulations that affect the facility to insure the facility is in compliance so being able to multitask without becoming overwhelmed is a plus.Courses needed to obtain a degree in medical office management often include medical terminology, medical office accounting, medical law and bioethics, as well as those in anatomy and physiology Although earning a bachelor’s degree or higher in health science is customary when seeking employment as a medical office manager one can also gain on the job experience and work their way up from a related career such as a medical receptionist, or a medical administrative assistant by taking on larger and more responsible positions as stated in an audio segment on medical office management.After earning a degree in medical office management most professionals will seek to earn their CMM (certified medical manager) credential offered by the PAHCOM (Professional Association of Health Care Office Management) which attest to a person’s professionalism as a healthcare manager nationwide.Being a medical office manager is a challenging profession and one must always be prepared for change whether it be in technology or to stay in compliance with an additional laws or regulations such as HIPAA(Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) other current issues include infection control, internal control to prevent employee misconduct and dealing with unresolved claims.My desire to become a medical office manager was kindled by a desire to expand my education and be the first one in my family to have earned a college degree, and to have a positive impact on my daughter who did not finish high sch ool in hopes she would return and someday in the future hold a degree in her own chosen field. My goal is not to enter the work force immediately although I know I need to complete an externship and clinical requirements in order to obtain my degree.I intend to earn my bachelor’s degree and work part-time in order to qualify for my CMM credentials and possibly move on to earn a master’s degree in Medical office management. I see myself as already having waited 20 years to return to school and continue my education so I am not in any hurry to reach my maximum potential, but instead continue to stay at home and see that my children receive the utmost care and support that I am able to give to them.In 5 years with an estimated graduation date of November 2014. I see myself working as a medical secretary in a doctor’s office in Kokomo near my home town of Peru, IN, holding my CPS (Certified Professional Secretary) and CAP (Certified Administrative Professional) cred entials while working on my bachelor’s degree in medical office management.Based on the assumption that I do not have any more children in the near future my youngest child will be of school age and I will be able to work while finishing my bachelor’s degree and earning my CMM credential and finally begin seeking to earn my master’s degree in medical office management, fortunately for me when people my age are thinking about retiring I will be beginning a career in a profession that I have wanted to work in for as long as I can remember.Taking the steps required to becoming a medical office manager is something that requires a lot of time patience and dedication but will ultimately lead to a rewarding career should you choose to accept the challenge? References A day in the life of a medical office manager (n. d. ) Retrieved from http://extmedia. kaplan. edu/healthSci/HS100/AAMedicalOfficeManagement. mp3 Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor, Occ upational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition, Medical, and Health Services Managers, on the Internet at http://www. bls. gov/ooh/management/medical-and-health-services-managers. tm (visited November 12, 2012). Hicks, J. , (2012 February 6). 6 current issues for medical office managers Retrieved from http://medicaloffice. about. com/b/2012/02/10/6-current-issues-for-medical-office-managers. htm Hicks, J. , (2012 June 29). Several traits for successful managers Retrieved From http://medicaloffice. about. com/b/2012/06/30/several-traits-for-successful-managers. htmm PAHCOM Certified medical manager overview Professional Association of Health Care Office Management (no date) Retrieved From http://www. pahcom. com/cmm/overview. html

Monday, July 29, 2019

Level of evidence Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Level of evidence - Term Paper Example When each study is completed, recommendations are made and results used to update the policies and procedures. For example, in validation of evidence for a clinical intervention for a particular disease, its results are important as the procedure regarding the treatment for the disease will be updated immediately. All policies and procedures are reviewed annually. The management of the health institution is the overall in charge in ensuring all policies and procedures are based on evidence. There are policies and procedures manual for the health institutions. The manual outlines each procedure and policy in detail, giving information on which particular individual is responsible. For example, there is a policy regarding the criteria to approve or exempt human subject research. The policy will indicate the scope, purpose and criteria, indicating the concerned department and personnel. The level of evidence indicates the type of study used in order to effectively make an evaluation of the intervention effect. This will be used to decide on whether the evidence is appropriate. The types of evidence accepted as appropriate are based on three factors namely, whether there is any real effect of the evidence, the relevance of the effect and the size of the effect. The strength of the evidence assesses the effectiveness of an intervention in clinical practice. There are different types of bias that can be detected in any study that can affect the outcome. Each type of study done can indicate the degree of bias. The methods used for the study determines the quality of the evidence in order to minimize bias within the particular study. The sources of bias for each study need to be determined. There are different types of bias such as selection bias or publication bias. Various questions need to be addressed as to how the sample was selected, whether the characteristics of the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Nurse Facilitated Hospital Discharge Planning in an Elderly Unit Literature review

Nurse Facilitated Hospital Discharge Planning in an Elderly Unit - Literature review Example Patients with complex care needs, including frail and elderly or those with mental problems, may require continuing care in special housing, residential or nursing homes, and need a ‘package of care’ to support them back to good health after hospital discharge (McKenna et al, 2000, p.594-601). Such population demands effective discharge arrangements. Discharge planning is â€Å"a facet of the overall care of the patient, developed through the application of the nursing process† (Watts, 2005). It is a process â€Å"that is dependent on inter-professional collaboration between health and welfare professionals† (Atwal, 2002). Study of problems of discharging patients from hospitals have been in focus during the last two decades, and some of the shortcomings identified are: â€Å"poor communication between hospital and community; inadequate notice of discharge; over-reliance in informed support and lack of support; inattention to patient’s needs before leaving hospital; and wasted or duplicated visits by community nurses† (McKenna et al, 2000, p.594-601). â€Å"Cost effective, coordinated, high-quality discharge planning† is integral to control increasing healthcare costs and hospital personnel must become more adept at preparing patients for discharge as there is a decrease in length of acute hospital stay, and increase in care shift to communities and homes (Lalani & Gulzar, 2001). â€Å"Aged care assessment team (ACAT)† model, operating in Australia, may be helpful in streamlining hospital discharge process in the U.K. (Robinson & Street, 2003). ACAT, a key multidisciplinary group primarily comprising nurses and paramedical staff, is involved in determining the discharge needs of older people Hence, decreasing length of patient stay in hospitals is paramount agenda in every health care planner and eliminating long waiting lists and freeing up of ‘blocked beds’ could be possible with effective an d efficient discharge planning procedures.  

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Do Merit-Based Scholarships Make Sense Research Paper

Do Merit-Based Scholarships Make Sense - Research Paper Example This essay discusses why merit-based scholarships do not actually make sense and why they are unfavorable and unfair for financially needy students. Because of their vested interests, university and college managements seek to attract meritorious students through merit-based scholarships to enhance the public image and fame of their institutions. Merit-based scholarships are provided irrespective of the beneficiary’s financial status, often resulting in the provision of scholarships to those who can already afford their education, and may also result in the disproportionate distribution of financial aid at the expense of need-based scholarships. These scholarships are usually based on admission tests that are not designed for this purpose, and therefore, they are unfair and damage the educational system. In fact, it appears that merit-based scholarships are designed to satiate the interests of college managements and often violate the rights of those actually in need of financ ial aid. These scholarships do not really make sense because financial assistance is provided to the student irrespective of whether he/she needs it or not. As will be discussed further on, merit-based scholarships do more harm than good to the education system. ... A look at Lewis & Clark College scholarships shows that meritorious students in fields such as music and forensics, and those with leadership qualities and other such traits are more favored. Peter Schmidt (2007), in his article, â€Å"At the elite colleges - dim white kids†, argues that the admission policies of most colleges are not usually fair and that more preference is often given to whites from affluent families or those with connections. According to him, students with â€Å"connections† or are from wealthy families obtain entry into colleges and universities selectively through recommendations from wealthy alumni and donors who grant endowments to those educational institutions. Schmidt further argues that the endowments received by educational institutions are also disproportionately distributed. According to him, only 40% of the money from financial aid is being distributed to students having financial need. The remaining is being used for merit-based scholar ships to â€Å"potential recruits who can enhance a college's reputation, or appear likely to cover the rest of their tuition tab and to donate down the road†. As Grossman puts it, â€Å"colleges are like any business for whom â€Å"quality† customers enhance the reputation of the product and attract other customers† (1995). Educational institutions must move on from being mere â€Å"businesses† with vested interests to being cradles of quality education with equal educational opportunities for all. It is seen that merit based scholarships are provided irrespective of the beneficiary’s financial status. Even if a student is wealthy enough to afford his fee, he avails merit-based scholarships based on his exceptional achievements. Other needy students who cannot afford their education

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Business Of the Art Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Business Of the Art - Research Paper Example This essay focuses on several things that make Martial Arts a viable business option. One is the fact that it does not go out of style. After years of existence, Martial Arts did not only persist, it has evolved and has allowed the development of even more Martial Arts. This has happened despite the lack of a definitive international body that will push for the growth of the sports. Hollywood exposure is also helping the art in getting more attention from the mainstream market. As more and more fighting techniques are developed, Hollywood is learning how to use different disciplines in a single movie. This produces greater interest on the sport. It is not enough that awareness about the discipline increases, it is more important that awareness among the right people about the art increases. Martial arts practitioners in movies are always projected to be the tough guys. This attracts people who are interested in learning how to fight. Fighting techniques are used for survival and mili tary combat and not for anything else. It is stated by the researcher that there may be a need for different martial arts organization to come together to come up with a universal plan on how to promote the sport. Once the marketing strategy is cleared out, it would be easier for gym owners to make business sense out of martial arts. The mere fact that martial arts remain a billion dollar industry despite the lack of international marketing strategy proves and shows the potential that the sport has.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Review the theoretical relationship between market structure and bank Coursework

Review the theoretical relationship between market structure and bank performance - Coursework Example The relationship between the structure of the market and performance of the bank exists due to various reasons. For instance, there is the advice that company executives (specifically, the chief executive officers) acquaint the government and bank officials. Such advice is vital for establishing better pricing strategies and focusing on the income within a certain period. It is vital for the Chief Executive Officer’s undertake their usual duties considering the relation established between the market and performance of the bank. The main concern of this paper is to portray the relationship between the market structure and bank performance. Theoretical relationship between market structure and bank performance Market structure is a commonly used marketing term that gives a description of the level of competition that various business organizations lie under. There are two named variables of the market structure responsible for ascertaining a good relation between banks and mark et structures. To begin with, there is market awareness, used when measuring the assets of the banks in relation to the liabilities (Gelos & Roldos 2004, p. 41). They help ensure that the liabilities do not outweigh the assets. This is significant as it helps maintain the profits and financial statement of the banks. Market share is the second variable and acts as an element measuring the deposit of banks within certain periods. The performance of the bank brings about accomplishing banking activities, which are necessary especially when bank executives aim at creating better relations with the outside market. Since long time, people have had the urge to acquire more knowledge on operating business entities. They have also had concerns about the relationship between their businesses and the government. This is evident through the collapse of the privatised banks in Mexico (Graf 2013, p. 165). Top most leaders in any business industry should aim at ensuring that their businesses oper ate smoothly without much loss on the finance department. This is necessary in enhancing the relationship between them and banks. This is due the fact that hindering losses denotes a business operating in a situation where the activities generate more profits, necessary to be deposited in the banks. Individuals dealing with banking operations need to evaluate the performance of the activities undertaken within and outside the bank. Scrutiny of the external and internal banking factors is necessary. This is because it enables executive employees of a particular bank to acquire vital knowledge about overall bank performance. The relationship may also exist through an assessment the operations of business industries. This is crucial especially in a case where the executives demand to know what other businesses contribute to the banking sector. Effects of market structures on bank performance The existence of a good relationship between market structure and banks is an essential element in setting strategies for dealing with the action involving the setting of prices. The relationship has resulted in positive effects on banks. For instance, well-established market structures play the role of increasing finance due to the reason that the individuals operate through to accomplish set objectives. This then leads to an increase in bank finance as the business partners have to increase general savings. The reason why banks opt to relate to

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Assault, Battery, and Crimes against Persons Term Paper

Assault, Battery, and Crimes against Persons - Term Paper Example There is no assault if the act does not produce a true fear of harm that is reasonable in the victim. The general rule of battery occurs when someone offensively touches another person and the touching does not necessarily have to inflict harm. The elements of battery are that an act with intent to cause harmful or offensive contact to the victim (Gardner & Anderson, 2012). The most important aspect that differentiates between assault and battery is the amount of contact. In assault cases, there is no physical harm to the victim, just threat from criminal to victim but in battery cases, there must be some physical contact between the criminal and victim. A person, who receives punishment for battery, is essentially guilty of assault as well but on the other hand; the assault crime has no charges of battery. Also, the purpose of assault is to threaten the victim while the purpose of battery is to cause to the victim actual physical harm (Molan, 2009). Both acts of assault and battery can be either be a criminal act or subject one to civil liability. Another similarity is found under common law where both acts are both Intentional torts. In both cases there are common defense to an assault or battery charge in all jurisdictions, these defenses are mutual consent where both parties agree to the situation, meaning that there was not a one-sided attack and the other defense is self-defense, defense of others, or defense of property. These are the most common defenses (Molan, 2009). The man’s actions should be considered as both an assault and battery because there were elements of both crimes in his actions. The attacker strikes (A) and rips her clothes this constitutes battery because there is actual physical contact that causes harm to the victim. Assault occurs when the attacker jumps from the alley and cause apprehension of harmful and offensive contact

Noam Chomsky's Theory of Universal Grammar and Development of Language Coursework

Noam Chomsky's Theory of Universal Grammar and Development of Language Abilities in Humans - Coursework Example   According to Chomsky, the process of language acquisition is genetically programmed and occurs as a consequence of the complex mental processes in the human brain. Simply stated, individuals possess inherent abilities and capacities, needed to understand the principal rules of grammar and apply them to construct meaningful sentences.Ample evidence supports the Chomskyan thesis. A profound analysis of language typology by Herman (2009) shows that all languages within and beyond the Austronesian group exhibit the same grammatical characteristics and operate the same list of grammatical conventions. These conventions reflect the ways, in which sentences in different languages are constructed (Kay & Fillmore 1999). Crain (2009) uses disjunctions to show, that children have a grammatical view of language different from that of adults, meaning that they develop their language structures, based on the a priori knowledge of grammatical rules. That the changes in language do not prevent c hildren from acquiring and learning it is one of the principal arguments in favor of the UG thesis. However, not all scholars readily agree with this viewpoint.Language diversity refutes a belief in grammatical universality across languages. The absence of certain grammatical categories in different languages further challenges the UG viewpoint. Ultimately, the UG thesis itself is a result of the lack of observational and analytical skills in professional linguists.The current state of literature does not fully support the UG thesis but does not reject it. Objectively, Chomskyan theory exemplifies one of the essential dimensions of scholarly research into English grammar and other languages and creates a foundation for future linguistic research. Even if Chomskyan universal grammar theory seems to neglect the differences between languages and the cultural/ social factors affecting language development, it operates strong arguments supporting the generalization and standardization of grammar patterns across languages. Apparently, future research must concentrate on the investigation of genetic mechanisms and their role in first and second language acquisition by English learners.

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Should Welfare Recipients be Drug Tested to Receive Government Aid Research Paper

Should Welfare Recipients be Drug Tested to Receive Government Aid - Research Paper Example Those in support of drug testing the people on public assistance emphasize on the efficient use of taxpayer money and that saving money, that is otherwise deemed to have been used for illicit drug activity, would help in tight state budgets. Edward Buchanan, a Republican speaker of the Wyoming house said, â€Å"The idea from Joe Taxpayer is, ‘I don’t mind helping you out, but you need to show that you’re looking for work, or better yet that you’re employed, and that you’re drug and alcohol-free.’ † (The New York Times, 2012). This is as simple as it gets. The state will test you for drugs before you qualify to receive the compensation. To support the point, Garth Everett, a Republic who defended drug testing legislation said that concern for drug test grew out of bitterness that the workers in many industries are tested for drugs several times, whereas welfare recipients are never subject to any such tests despite a high possibility of drug abuse. Therefore their point is that the government may require drug tests from the recipients of the compensation just to ensure that they are not involved in any illegal activity and utilize their funds responsibly. According to them, this shouldn’t be contrary to the statute and constitution as a government can be seen as an employer of welfare recipients in this case (Hall, 2012). On the other hand, those against the proposal have tried to make their point on the basis of statistical evidence and conclusions drawn therefrom. They argue that the rule to drug test these innocent patients is not in accordance with the US constitution as it makes an unreasonable assumption about the welfare recipients to be drug abusers. Therefore testing these unfortunate citizens for drug abuse would amount to an unconstitutional search of people who sought help. This could also jeopardize the main purpose of this good cause. W. Patrick Goggles, a Democrat  state representative said, â€Å"This legislation assumes suspicion on this group of people, it assumes that they’re drug abusers.†

Monday, July 22, 2019

Battle of Thermopylae Essay Example for Free

Battle of Thermopylae Essay 300 is a fictionalized depiction of the 460 B. C. Battle of Thermopylae. Adapted from Frank Miller’s graphic novel 300, director Zack Snyder evidently aimed for this cinematic spectacle as historical as the Spartan’s glory. Led by King Leonidas (Gerard Butler), the 300 best Spartan soldiers fought to death against the Persian King Xerxes’ (Rodrigo Santoro) campaign of ruling the world of men, save the last one named Dilios (David Wenham) who lived to proclaim the glory of the 300 and of course, recount the story from the birth of King Leonidas to the rigors of a Spartan soldier’s life. Through this narrative technique, we are brought to the world of grotesque-faced warriors, beautiful and cursed oracles, sex orgy, 460 B. C. political evil and gigantic fantastical beasts that made the whole movie an action historical fantasy instead of a classroom historical documentary. Created by CGI visual effects technology, the movie is an image duplication of the original comic book. The unworldly creatures came to life, a mere number of casts looked a hundred thousand or so, the amazing panoramic dark clouds added much drama to the dark scenes and the rain of gores and blood were clearly meant for action suckers rather than the sandal supporters. Indeed, human slaughter never looked so pretty. But you do not need to be a comic book or a computer animation fan to admire this cinematic landmark. The cinematography is what grabs your attention in a different way as Gladiator or Lord of the Rings or Troy ever did. Although I have to add that incorporating some of the said movies’ best shots like the Gladiator’s sunny wheat field scene, the olliphant-like creatures from LotR and the bird’s eye view battalion shots from Troy, gave us some moments sort of deja vu but over-all, Snyder did his homework pretty well in making this 460 B. C battle unbelievably believable. From the angles to the color schemes, the 300 movie looked like a technically polished storyboard. Every frame is beautiful and every panel is a cinematic feast. Unlike the technically benchmarking combat between Hector and Achilles in Troy, the combats in 300 are taken NOT from a vantage point of a spectator, but from an eye level of somebody who belongs in the battle†¦ somebody who moves in the battle. Filled with slow motion shots, the frame almost freezes to give a further zoom of the amazing sequences. The effect? Well, the audience were brought face-to-face to the thrill of the Battle of Thermopylae than they could ever imagine. The way the film flowed gave us a comic book feel to almost every scene but freed us from the eye candy gloss of the comic book. The chained giant Persians, the leprosy looking elders and warriors, the outrageously choreographed combats and the spear-causing blood showers looked wildly more spectacular than what paint brushes or video game film-making could ever do. The irony of the special effects’ impact on creating a scene of the past while setting a cinematic future gained 300 its wider acceptance. The incredible visuals were bloody mad and ferocious, which is exactly what that era is all about and what our era tries to relive, technically. We know how this is made. Shots were indoors against a blue screen and the backgrounds were added using CGI techniques. (Movie buffs get the hang of this technique after Twilight produced an exclusive documentary of the CGI behind their movie). Lacking of an all star casts and expensive shooting locations, we can say that the movie’s visual effects stole the spotlight. Even Gerard Butler’s commanding voice will not be given that much awe without the tiny acoustic touch. However, the visual techniques which so prodigiously employed didn’t just become the movie’s success but as well the movies failing. Having it overpower the substance made critics less indulged and more complaining. Many said that whatever the movie tremendously have in style, it lacks in human emotions and thus fall short in portraying the historical Battle of Thermopylae as a human history, not an epic from another world. Save Queen Gorgo’s (Lena Headey) shot to rally support for her husband, all those battle speeches sounded vain for lacking frame supports. But then again, the R rating could well make us understand that it’s the bloody, violent stunts that made us pay for the two-hour beautifully-generated tortures. To quote King Leonidas, â€Å"a new age has come, a new freedom†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I guess, we just have to embrace it.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Isolation of Sarracenin from Root Barks of Strychnos Spinosa

Isolation of Sarracenin from Root Barks of Strychnos Spinosa On isolation of Sarracenin from Root barks of Strychnos spinosa and its Antimicrobial Properties. A known iridoid, Sarracenin, was isolated from the root bark of Strychnos spinosa. Its structure was elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments, and comparison with reported data. This is the first time it has been isolated from this species. The compound showed significant antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans Candida tropicalis, Candida thrusei, and Candida stellatoidea, respectively. The genus Strychnos (Loganiaceae), consist of about 75 accepted species found throughout the tropics and subtropical Africa [1]. Strychnos spinosa is commonly known as Kaffir orange, Spiny monkey orange or Natal orange. It is utilized variously in African traditional medicine for ailments such as dropsy, earache, snakebite, fever, elephantiasis, fever epilepsy and rheumatism [2]. The isolation and structural elucidation of the iridoid sarracenin from the root bark of this plant and its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella dysenteriae, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans Candida tropicalis, Candida thrusei, and Candida stellatoidea, respectively, is hereby reported. Results and Discussion. The compound was obtained as fine, transparent, needle shaped crystals. It was determined as Sarracenin using 1D and 2D-NMR experiments, and comparison with reported data [3, 4, 5]. Some revisions to reported chemical shift assignments [3, 4] based on our DEPTq135, H, H-COSY, HMBC, HSQC and NOESY data are suggested. Table 1.1HNMR Data of Sarracenin in CDCl3 (ÃŽ ´ in ppm, J in Hz) based on fig. 1A DEPT spectra: DEPTq 135 spectrum gave the proton chemical shifts 166.77 (quaternary or methylene), 150.08 (methine or methyl), 112.32 (quaternary or methylene), 91.68 (methine or methyl), 88.13 (methine or methyl), 68.99 (methine or methyl), 51.42 (methine or methyl), 35.06 (quaternary or methylene), 32.26 (methine or methyl), 22.06 (methine or methyl), 18.70 (methine or methyl). The conclusion by Miles et al, [3] that signals at 35.1 and 22.1 are due to methine (C-5) and methylene (C-6), respectively, does not agree with our results; otherwise, we agree with their 13 C conclusions. Similarly, Wang et al, [4] report of chemical shifts at 91.7 as quaternary, 112.3 as methine, 18.7 as quaternary and 166.8 as methyl (Table 2.) is at variance with their justifications on HMQC and HMBC data. In addition, Wang et al, [4] reports 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) ÃŽ ´ 5.78 (d, J = 1.6 Hz), 1.34 (d, J = 6.5Hz, 3 H) as signals for protons at C-1 and C- 10, respectively; no protons are located at those positions (Figure 1A). It would seem a different numbering scheme was used, however, two different numberings were considered (Figures 1A 1B) neither agreed completely with Wang et al, [4]. Those assignments would appear to have distorted conclusions on 1H, 1H-COSY, HMBC and HMQC data (Tables 1 2). 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) ÃŽ ´ 7.46 (s, 1H), 5.79 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1H), 4.99 (dd, J = 3.5, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.22 (q, J = 6.5 Hz, 1H), 2.98 (ddt, J = 10.7, 4.0, 1.9 Hz, 1H), 2.44 – 2.31 (m, 1H), 1.68 (dddd, J = 10.0, 5.3, 2.9, 1.0 Hz, 2H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H). Table 2.13C-NMR Data of Sarracenin in CDCl3 (ÃŽ ´ in ppm) based on fig. 1A Key * = Major areas with observed variation. It was noted that the compound contained 11 signals using13C-NMR and DEPT spectra, including two Me, one CH2, six CH, and two quaternary carbons. Analysis of overall NMR spectroscopic data revealed the signals at 1 2 E Figure 1A. Numbering of Sarracenin as by Miles et al, [3] and present work, B: Numbering as on[6] C: Important HMBC correlations, D: Important NOESY correlations, E: Important 1H-1HCOSY correlations. 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, TMS)ÃŽ ´7.46 (s, 1 H), 5.79 (t, J = 1.9, 1 H), 4.99 (dd, J = 3.5, 0.8, 1 H), 4.22 (q, J = 6.5, 1 H), 3.76 (s, 3 H), 2.98 (ddt, J = 10.7, 4.0, 1.9, 1 H), 2.37, 1.68 (m, dddd, J = 10.0, 5.3, 2.9, 1.0, 2 H), 1.35 (d, J = 6.5, 3 H); 13CNMR and DEPT (100 MHz, CDCl3, TMS) 166.77 (ester C=O), 150.08 (olefinicCH), 112.32 (olefinic quaternary carbon), 91.68 (CH), 88.13 (CH), 68.99 (CH), 51.42 (ester OCH3), 35.06 (methylene), 32.26 (CH), 22.06 (allylic CH), 18.70 (CH3) Antimicrobial activity The antimicrobial activities of sarracenin were assayed against some pathogenic microbes obtained from the Department of Medical Microbiology A.B.U. Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. The compound showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, Candida tropicalis and Candida stellatoidea (Table 3.). This points sarracenin out as a major medicinal principle of Strychnos spinosa and lends justification to its use in traditional medicine. Experimental Collection of Plant Material The root bark of Strychnos spinosa was collected from Katsina-Ala, Benue State, Nigeria, in August, 2013. The bark was air-dried and their size reduced with the aid of a wooden mortar and pestle. Extraction and Isolation The ground material (750 g) was macerated for 72 hours using 500 mL each of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Preliminary antimicrobial screening revealed the ethyl acetate extract to be most active against test microbes. Thus the ethyl acetate extract (10 g) was separated by Vacuum liquid chromatography. A very gentle gradient elution was used from hexane through to ethyl acetate. Thirty fractions (25 ml each) were collected and allowed to evaporate to approximately half their initial volumes. Fine needles were observed in fractions 20-25. These were monitored by TLC on ethyl acetate- methanol (1:1) solvent system and plates visualized using iodine vapour. The combined needles (221 mg) were further purified using SephadexLH20 with methanol-ethyl acetate ratio (1:1) as solvent. 1HNMR, 13CNMR and 2DNMR experiments were carried out on the purified compound using 30 mg. Its melting point was 123 – 1240C determined using Electro thermal IA 9300 (Gallenkhamp capillary melting point apparatus with a thermometer). Antimicrobial Assay The compound (0.01 mg) was weighed and dissolved in DMSO (10 mL) to obtain a concentration of 10 Â µg/mL (This would subsequently be used to determine the antimicrobial activities of the plant). Mueller Hinton and Sabouraud dextrose agar were used as growth media for the microbes. All the media were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions, sterilized at 121 oC for 15 min and were poured into sterile petri dishes, allowed to cool and solidify. Disc diffusion method was used to screen the initial crude extracts. Sterilized media were seeded with a standard inoculum (0.1 ml) of test microbe, Mueller Hinton for the bacteria and SDA for the fungi. The inoculum was spread evenly over the surface of the media using a sterile swab. A well (6 mm) was cut at the center of the inoculated medium using a standard cork-borer (6 mm diameter). Solution of the extract (0.1 mL) was introduced into each well of the inoculated medium. The inoculated media were incubated at 37 oC fo r 24 hours for bacteria and at 30 oC for 7 days for the fungi, after which plates were observed for zones of inhibition of growth. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the compound was determined using the broth dilution method. Minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration (MBC and MFC) were also carried out to determine whether the test microbes were killed or only inhibited. Ciprofloxacin, Fulcin and Fluconazole were used as positive controls. Table 3. Antimicrobial Activity of sarracenin Key: S = Sensitive, R = Resistant, = (No turbidity) No colony growth, Ã ° = MIC or MBC or MFC, + = (Turbid) Scanty colony growth, ++ = Moderate colony growth, +++ = Heavy colony growth References Sitrit, Y., Loison, S., Ninio R, et al. (October 2003). Characterization of monkey orange (Strychnos spinosa Lam.), a potential new crop for arid regions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (21): 6256–60. De, B.B. and Bisset, N.G. (1988). Alkaloids from the leaves of strychnos wallichiana steudelEx. A. DC. Indian Drugs 26 (2): 90-91. Miles, H. D.,Kokpol, U., Bhattacharyya, J.,Atwood, J. L.,Stone, K. E.,Bryson, T. A. and Wilson, C. (1976). Structure of Sarracenin. An Unusual EnolDiacetalMonoterpene from the Insectivorous Plant Sarracenia Java.J. Am. Chem. Soc. (6) 1570 Wang, Y., Wei, Q., Yang, L., and Liu, Z. (2003). Iridoid Glucosides from Chinese Herb Lonicerachrysathaand their antitumor activity. J. Chem. Research (S) 676-677 Yang, X., Li, E., Zhang, Q., Yuan, C., and Jia, Z. (2006). Five New Iridoids from Patrinarupestris. Helv. Chim. Acta. (3) 762-770

Thor: Comparison of Myths and Comic Books

Thor: Comparison of Myths and Comic Books The modern day image of a superhero consists of either Superman or Batman riding in a high-speed car and swinging off of buildings hundreds of feet from the ground, desperately trying to save the innocent victim. A Norse God with long blonde hair, a winged metal helmet, and a bright red cape with blue leggings is probably not an ordinary image being pictured in ones head. Superheroes come in all varieties, shapes, and forms, but behind each superhero lies a secret to why they were created. The reasons for creation range from events that previously occurred in history to recent changes in todays society. Comic book superheroes were indeed influenced by history, but the comic book superheroes also continually influence history itself. This reciprocal influence continues to affect the generations of comic book fans for years on end. Comic book creators have been known for using a strategy to create characters which tend to resemble infamous gods to separate the common ideal mortal heroes from the indestructible immortals. By using this strategy, comic book creators are able to give their characters a fierce outer shell with a scholarly uplift (Reynolds 53). With the creation of the Mighty Thor comic book character in 1962, Lee and Thomas used this strategy perfectly (54). Asgardian characters were just ready-made superheroes waiting to be transformed into the comic-book world (57). Being named one of the most unusual creations in comic book history, Thor truly defined â€Å"†¦the first successful attempt to harness existing mythology on a large scale to construct the mise en scene of a superhero† (54). In relation to history, Thor was the son of Odin, the universal father, and Frigga queen of the gods. His name dates back to ancient Norse Mythology where he was known for his incredible strength and enormous size. This continually amazed the gods (Guerber 59). Recognized as the god of thunder with a magical hammer, he was â€Å"honoured as the highest god in Norway† (60). Thor was always right in the middle of action when it came to battling against raging monsters, deadly giants, and prehistoric forces. There are three main properties that define Thors character when he becomes involved in battle. The first is his infamous hammer Miollnir which symbolizes the crushing skulls of monsters and giants. The second is his belt of strength which when buckled, makes his godlike powers multiply. Last are his iron gloves which he must wear in order to swing his hammer (Page 40). There is a direct correlation between the mythical Thor and the comic-book character the Mighty Thor. From both the physical aspects and the characteristics of their personalities, Norse legends have heavily influenced the modern comic-book superheroes (Knowles 29). The Mighty Thor is visualized as a tall robust man, with strawberry blonde locks, and blue eyes. He also speaks in a very distinct old English accent. An example is when the mighty Thor proclaims, â€Å"Thy work is done, father! Let it be known far and wide that the full might of Mjolnir is restored† (0000). Whereas the mythical Thor is closely described â€Å"†¦as a man in his prime, tall and well formed, with muscular limbs and bristling red hair and beard†¦(Guerber 60).† Both characters also share the same love of being involved in battle, and depend on their mighty hammer. Although, the mythical Thor depends on his hammer for security and power, the Mighty Thor uses his hammer to transform into Don Blake and back into Thor (Page 13). The mythical Thor was also known for his outlandish and dangerous outrages which eventually became uncontrollable. Consequently, his mother sent him away from home and placed him in the care of Vingir and Hlora. This is where his other names â€Å"Vingthor† and â€Å"Hlorridi† derived from (Guerber 59). Much like the mythical Thor being sent away from his homeland, the Mighty Thor was sent away from Asgard to earth as a punishment from his father because of his arrogance (Reynolds 54). From these comparisons one can obviously conclude that the artist, Jack Kirby, was truly fascinated with Norse legends. Since his childhood, Norse legends formed the basis for his imagination and gave him great inspiration when it came to graphically representing the Mighty Thor on paper (Misiroglu 599). History has indeed influenced the creation of the Mighty Thor, but another question should be raised. Has the Mighty Thor influenced history? With the debut of the Mighty Thor in 1962, the hippie era was on the rise. Long hair, bell bottom jeans, and tie-die were some of the trends getting ready to appear. The country was also getting ready to be faced with the Vietnam turmoil which would greatly influence comic-book creators and their story-lines to come. The Mighty Thor has always been known for fighting out against powerful Communists and mad scientists (Knowles 191). Throughout most of the Marvel comic-books, villains were represented as Communists. Some superheroes would actually have to travel straight into the heart of the Viet-Cong for battle. In the famous 1965 series, Journey into the Mystery, the Mighty Thor was found in South Vietnam assisting a group of anti-communist peasants. Both the peasants and Thor were taking on the merciless Viet Cong military. Along the way, Tho r also liberated a Vietnamese family from Communism where he promised a village he would return (Wright 222). With the Vietnam conflict raging among citizens all over the United States, young adolescents were getting ready to burst out. The Mighty Thors heavy anti-communism propaganda, influenced readers of all ages. One way Thor truly influenced the youth culture was actually unintentional towards young men. Preceding a couple of years after the Might Thors debut, his long golden hair would become a fashionable trend. This long hair then became a symbol of rebellion and rage for young people all over the nation (213). The hippie era had begun.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

How To Get Married And Stay Married To The Perfect Mate!! :: essays research papers

How To Get Married and Stay Married To The Perfect Mate!! This book will talk about the ways and theories of how to stay married one you are married. It will cover stuff like communication, similarity, physical attractiveness, similarity, balance and equity theory, and proximity. Communication is important in relationships. I will cover the aspects of non-verbal and verbal communications. In the book I will convey the differences in the way men and woman think and this will help give a better understanding of each other and will in turn allow them to work out their problems effectively... Another aspect I will talk about is the reinforcement theory. This theory talks about the fact that you will like someone who positively reinforces you. I will talk about how this theory can be used in marriages to keep couple closer together, keeping them liking each other. In my book, I will also talk about the balance theory. The balance theory is the notion that people have the same negative and positive ways of thinking.. When this is not so, you have an imbalance which can disrupt a relationship. I will talk about how a couple can use the balance theory to make sure that they will be happy. Another theory I will talk about is the equity theory. This theory dictates that people will be more attracted to someone that they have a fair relationship with. It states that we will be happier with a person who takes as much as they give to us. Over a long term relationship, like marriage, this is important because both husband and wife feel that they are approximately equal. In my book I will talk about how to use this theory to makes sure that both couples get the same out of the relationship. I will also talk about proximity in my book. Proximity talks about being near to your partner. It is important because if one partner is away all the time, the couple will not become as close. I will deal with the aspect of how to stay in close proximity with your partner and this will lead to a closer relationship between the two. It is also important to start a relationship with someone who is near to you because this will allow the relationship to better develop itself. Also, there must be similarity between the couples. In my book I will talk about finding someone who has similar interests and traits. When two people are similar, the more likely they are to be attracted to each other and the more likely they are to be happy while they are dating and when they are

Friday, July 19, 2019

Hamlet :: essays research papers

In the first section of the passage, Hamlet is filled with self-loathing. His feelings of worthlessness are made quite apparent as he questions himself with statements like â€Å"What is a man, if his chief good and market of his time be but to sleep and feed? A beast no more.† This metaphor clearly shows how unworthy Hamlet feels about the fact that he has been lying around doing nothing and his father remains unavenged. His use of unpleasant imagery like â€Å"bestial oblivion† and â€Å"fust† also contribute to his tone. Hamlet knows he has been thinking too much and acting too little. He questions his own courage when he says that his thoughts are â€Å" but one part wisdom and ever three parts coward.† Hamlet understands that pondering on an action like he has been doing only leads to excuses to ignore the offense done to him, and it is his fear creating the excuses and leaving his honor soiled. In the second section of the passage Hamlet is still angry at himself, especially when he views himself next to Fortinbras. He juxtaposes his own actions against Fortinbras’ in lines like â€Å"Why yet I live to say â€Å"This thing’s to do,† sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means to do’t.† and â€Å"Witness this army of such mass and charge, led by a delicate and tender prince , whose spirit, with divine ambitioned puffed, makes mouths at the invisible event.† He continues to question his self worth as he sees the fact that Fortinbras is willing to spend 20,000 lives to gain honor in his â€Å"event,† while He himself has not been able to gather even enough courage take care of his â€Å"event† which is revenging his father. The comparison is clear Hamlet is a â€Å"coward† while Fortinbras is a brave â€Å"delicate and tender prince.† In the third section Hamlet finds the answer to the self questioning that has occurred in the first to passages. He realizes he must take action immediately and quit delaying. He understands the fact that â€Å"Rightly to be great is not to stir without great argument, but greatly to find quarrel in a straw when honor’s at stake.† Hamlet has much greater reason then â€Å"a straw† to be angry and a vivid picture of his reason for rage is painted in the line â€Å"a father killed, a mother stained, excitements of my reason and my blood, let all sleep, while to my shame I see the imminent death of twenty thousand men.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Ethics and Laws governing insider trading Essay

Insider trading remains a controversial issue in the American public domain. Most individuals perceive the practice as being illegal. However, insider trading can both be legal and illegal practice. The provisions of the American law dictate that any form of insider trading should be reported to the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to make it legal (Miller & Jentz, 2009). This has the implication that the transaction is not kept a secret for access by the general public. On the other hand, insider trading is termed illegal if the transaction is based on information that is not accessible to public. Indeed, it is not only illegal to trade one’s company in the stock market based on non-public information but even to give another person the information enabling them to trade their stock (Miller & Jentz, 2009). This paper seeks to identify the ethical and legal aspects of insider trading practices in the business world. In particular, the author gives an argument is support of the claim that imposing measures to control insider trading is crucial in protecting the economic interest of public investors. Definition of insider trading Insider trading is defined as the act of trading the securities (stock or bonds) of a corporation by members with reliable access to non-public information on the given organization (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Such individual might include but not limited to employees, directors, and major shareholders in the company as well as other officers. The practice of insider trading is termed as non-illegal if the transactions are not executed based on the individual’s knowledge to non-public information about the company (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Nevertheless, the term commonly refers to actions in which the parties involve engage in breach of trust and confidentiality of non-public information. As an example, insider trading can involve trading of stock based on information such as profit results or takeover of an organization before such information is made public (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Another example is were an individual, having prior information of a large order in the stock, trades on such before the order is executed leading to a potential price impact. Ethics governing insider trading There are numerous ethical implications associated with insider trading. First, insider trading practices are perceived as a potential distortion of stock markets. Investor confidence and trust is one of the most crucial elements in determining the long-term sustainability of any economy (Brenkert & Beauchamp, 2009). This is because to ensures the continuous flow of investment capital by members of the community. On the contrary, insider trading serves the ultimate purpose of compromising the confidence of the investors by risking risk price impacts on their stock. Based on this reasoning, insider is a contradiction to the policies protecting small scale investments through securities in our nation. It is worth noting that insiders and any other third parties involved are usually influential members to the company or in the community, leaving small scale investors vulnerable. Another ethical issue of concern in insider trading is the question of unfair competition (Brenkert & Beauchamp, 2009). Insider trading involves individuals taking advantage of non-public information of a company to execute stock trading practices. According to its definition, the practice does not only involve corporation officials, employees, and large stakeholders but even third party members with access of such information. This has the implication that other investors with stocks on the corporation suffer the disadvantage of transacting their stocks and bonds long after insiders have made them. Such is ethically wrong as it deprives investors of their right to equal opportunity in the stock exchange market. Insider trading has the ultimate potential of leading to the collapsing of an investment. Insider trading has witnessed the downfall of many strong public corporations in the United States. Good examples of this are the 2002 collapsing of Enron and WorldCom corporations due to irregular trading of their stocks in the securities exchange. According available evidence linked with the collapsing of Enron and WorldCom corporations, it is quite evident that the companies engaged in financial scandals involving misrepresentation of their financial statements to influence their stand at the stock market. This misappropriation of information as is the case with insiders thus risks falling of organizations. In addition, insider trading is a source of liability to the parties involved. The principles of ethical business practices dictate for mitigation of liabilities by members of an organization. On the other hand, the underlying laws of our nation seek to prosecute perpetuators of unethical practices in the investment world (Brenkert & Beauchamp, 2009). This is in purpose aimed at safeguarding capital investments and protecting investor confidence. In line with this, insider trading risk tarnishing the reputation of an organization as well as its employees. This ethical issue can be emphasized by the legal case costs and other liabilities that have been incurred by former top officials of the WorldCom and Enron Corporations. Laws governing insider trading Insider trading practices can both be legal and illegal depending on the provisions of the existing laws in the American nation. According to the available laws, legal insider trading should be qualified through SEC fillings which serve to make the proceedings public. There are three legal provisions governing insider trading in America namely: 1) common law; 2) SEC regulations; and 3) US Supreme Court decisions. †¢ Common law Insider trading conducted without disclosure in inside information to the SEC is legally regarded as fraud under the American common law. The 1933 Securities Act prohibits fraud in the sale of securities under its provision in section 17 (Miller & Jentz, 2009). These provisions are further strengthened by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Under section 16(b) of this act, it is a crime for company officials, directors, employees, and stockholders owning more than 10% of the company shares to enjoy short-swing profits through transactions in the SEC within a period of six months (Miller & Jentz, 2009). In addition, fraud activities during securities trading are prohibited under section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Other common law governing insider trading are the Insider Trading Sanctions Act of 1984 and the Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988 (Miller & Jentz, 2009). These two acts are instrumental in mitigating illegal insider trading activities in the stock exchange market. The laws impose penalties of up to three times any profits gained through illegal insider trading. Just to be appreciated is the fact that such amount of fine is equally applicable for any losses that were avoided through illegal trading (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Moreover, the laws also provides for potential banning of companies involved in illegal trading depending on the level of such activities. The collapsing of major American public corporations such as Enron, WorldCom, and squeaky clean Martha Stewart prompted the enactment of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The act seeks to establish a streamlined framework for mitigating financial scandals both by auditing firms as well as in the proceedings of the SEC (Miller & Jentz, 2009). By dictating for the formation of Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) which dictates qualification of auditors; such are no doubt crucial in ensuring sanity in the accounting profession. In addition, this act makes it mandatory for the SEC to qualify financial statements from corporations enlisted in the stock market. †¢ SEC regulations Insider trading is governed by a number of provisions of the SEC rules and regulation. In its fair disclosure requirements, the SEC dictates that a company is bound by the law to disclosure non-public information to the public in the event it happens to do so intentionally to an individual (Macey, 1991). If such disclosures were not intentional, the organization should communicate the same to the general public. Another important rule on insider trading is defined in SEC Rule 10b5-1. According to this rule, prohibition against insider trading should not only be based on whether non-public information was used during the trade, but even mere possession of such information amounts to a violation of the rule. The provisions of Williams Act of 1968 on takeovers and tender offers also give the SEC powers to regulate insider trading. By definition, the Williams Act is an amendment to the 1934 Securities and Exchange Act. The Act dictates for mandatory full and fair disclosure of information involving tender offers (Macey, 1991). According to its provisions, if a company seeks to acquire or control another through securities, such intentions should be communicated to SEC through fillings and in written to the company to be acquired. The aim of this law is to ensure fair benefiting of the stakeholders as well as allowing the management equal opportunity to make any defense case in a fair manner. In addition, the Williams Act requires that an individual wishing to offer cash tender of 15 to 20 percent of the current market price to acquire a corporation must registered under federal law to disclose to the federal Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Such disclosures include; source of the money to be used in the offer, existing contractual agreements with the corporation to be purchased, intention of the purchase, and the plans to be implemented upon the successful completion of the tender offer (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Moreover, disclosures with SEC by an individual wishing to purchase 5 percent of a given corporation should be copied to all national securities exchanges were such stocks are traded to make sure that the information is accessible to investors. Under this law, SEC enjoys legal authority to take legal action against persons acting in violation of the provisions. This includes the use of falsified and misleading statements to gain unfair competition in tender offers. †¢ Court decisions The US Supreme Court has made numerous landmark case decisions regarding insider trading. During the 1909 case of Strong v. Repide, the court ruled that directors are not bound by the law to provide their knowledge to stakeholders about their actions in buying shares from the company (Macey, 1991). However, in the 1984 case of Dirks v. SEC, the Supreme Court found that third party insiders should be held liable for engaging in illegal insider trading provided it is established that they had reasonable belief that the provider of the information had breached a fiduciary duty in the process (Macey, 1991). Such are also applicable if the tipper is found to have gained personal benefits from the receiver upon disclosure the confidential company information. Further, the ruling in the Dirks v. SEC case led to the establishment of the concept of constructive insiders. According to the court, constructive insiders include members who gain access to non-public information from a corporation while providing it with services. Such include; lawyers and bankers among other. The court held that constructive insiders are liable of violations of insider trading since their duties dictate against disclosure of their client’s confidential information. Another landmark case regarding insider trading is the United States v. Carpenter case of 1986 in which the Supreme Court upheld the concept of misappropriation of information as an insider trading violation (Miller & Jentz, 2009). From the facts of the case, the defendant was conviction for insider trading violations after acquiring non-public information from a journalist. This court argued that acquisition of information through a confidential relationship with another individual amount to a breach of fiduciary and the individual must account for any benefits gained from the information. The theory of misappropriation was further applied by the Supreme Court in the 1997 United States v. O’Hagan case. During this case, O’Hagan was convicted with violation of insider trading provisions. Working at in a law firm representing Grand Metropolitan O’Hagan gained confidential information about the company’s plan offer a tender to Pillsbury Co. he used this information to buy call options on Pillsbury stock, an act that brought him a profit of $4 million. O’Hagan was convicted with fraud. The court argued that O’Hagan had committed fraud for using confidential information to benefit him in the securities trade, a move that breached the duty owed to the information source (Miller & Jentz, 2009). Conclusion It is established that insider trading has numerous ethical implications. The practice is a major source of unfair competition in the securities trading business. This is because it gives competitive advantage to influential members of the corporation in terms of profitable stock trading through access of non-public information about the company. On the other hand, insider trading can be a source of liability for the perpetuators. Such can be evident from the provisions of the Insider Trading Sanctions Act of 1984 and the Insider Trading and Securities Fraud Enforcement Act of 1988 which dictates for penalties of up to three times any benefits gained from illegal insider trading. Still established during the research is that insider trading in the American nation is governed by common laws, SEC rules, and numerous court statutes. Under the common law is the provision of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, it is a crime for company officials, directors, employees, and stockholders owning more than 10% of the company shares to enjoy short-swing profits through transactions in the SEC within a period of six months. This law also prohibits fraud. The Williams act on the other side gives the SEC authority to prosecute individuals and companies for insider trading violations. All in all, given that insider trading potentially distorts the stock market, imposing measures to control insider trading is crucial in protecting the economic interest of public investors. References Miller, R. L. & Jentz, G. A. (2009). Fundamentals of Business Law: Summarized Cases. 8th Ed. Chicago: Cengage Learning. Macey, R. J. (1991). Insider trading: economics, politics, and policy. Washington, D. C. : American Enterprise Institute. Brenkert, G. G. & Beauchamp, T. L. (2009). The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press US.

State and Local Government Essay

What is Federalism?The coupled States has wiz of the most complicated put to works of establishment in the world. With many an(prenominal) levels and subdivisions, this fix of organisation is c wholly tolded national official official officialism. at heart the United States, federalism is marked by a continuous change in the arrangement of connections between the field, res universala, and topical anesthetic authoritiess. At times, the diametrical levels of g everyplacenment act free-livingly and at former(a) times, the levels became so entang guide that it be discerns unwork subject to tell apart the responsibilities of one from the other. Federalism is honor fitted one of the three main administrations of magnate used by the United States. in that respect ar two ways, other than vestal federalism, to organize origin among national and regional governments. Pure federalism is also known as a federal formation. In a federal arrangement, the aborigin al and regional governments atomic number 18 divided in antecedent and responsibilities, and the governments do non depend on diely other for their force play. Voters sway bay windowdidates into both(prenominal) the regional and primordial levels within a federal governance on the wholeowing the United States to c totally for a representative government, meaning that pronounce elect representatives to legislate on their behalf. Another system of government is the one(a) system. In a unitary system, place is concentrated in the central government.The central government past grants special powers to the regional governments. Voters elect people into the central government and then the central government assigns people to the regional governments. Frances government is an example of a unitary system. The third gear system of government is the confederal system or confederacy. In a confederacy, power is concentrated more than in the regional governments than the cent ral government. Voters elect people into the autarkical regional governments and then these independent regional governments grant legal ascendence to the central government. An example of a confederal system would be the Confederate States of America.The federal system describes the system of power that the United States has. This means that the regional governments ( conjures and local anaestheticities) and the central (national) government ar independent equals. Because of this, thefederal system allows for these regional governments to look into with policy. These experimental acts by the regional governments break in them the label of laboratories of democracy.However, for around years now, federalism has been link with the imagination of devolution. Devolution is the serve up of powers and responsibilities organism interpreted from the national government and presumptuousness(p) to the evoke governments, which intelligibly goes against the independent equals opi nion in federalism because states be gaining more power. This could be a result of the states abusing their power of experimenting with policy. Although states exponent abuse their power of experimenting, the actual execute of experimenting is considered an advantage.Experimenting is one of the many advantages of federalism. Federalism allows for flexibility among state jurisprudences and institutions as well as reduces complications because the states ar able to accommodate citizens interests, which is shown by how ofttimes easier trade is now. Another advantage of federalism is that it enables the deed of national goals, which is shown when the goal of creating an interstate highway system was achieved in the 1950s. Although federalism is replete of advantages, it comes with a price.Unfortunately, federalism increases complexity and disorderliness, which could be a vast inconvenience for people. Federalism raise cause confusion between state and federal governments bec ause of the vagueness of the take away division of powers among them. Federalism promotes the duplication of efforts and the reduction of accountability. It also makes it difficult to form, which is shown when police or ardor departments in different cities or states go offt say with each other. This was clearly shown during the Three Mile Island accident that to the highest degree caused a huge catastrophe. Another draw rump would be that federalism creates inequality in services and policies. Federalism is not a perfect nousl, but earlier it plays host to a balance of both advantageous and disadvantageous outcomes.The Federal extremity Management Agency, also known as FEMA, is a classic example of how federalism shapes policy. In trying to aid in the succour for hurricane Katrina, FEMA was unsuccessful in their efforts. They were notable to communicate with state and local governments and coordinate procedures in providing relaxation. However, during hurricane Sandy, FE MA standd great sponsor and relief for people because they were able to efficiently communicate and coordinate proper procedures. This shows how coordination can go from bad to good because of the resiliency of FEMA in federalism.Federalism in the United States has a innate base. The Constitution grants powers to the different levels of government. Enumerated powers argon grants of authority that be explicitly given to the federal government, meaning that they ar written in the Constitution. One of the most important pieces in the Constitution is the national supremacy clause, which states that federal law takes precedence over all other laws. This allows the process of the federal government overriding argonas regulated by state law, called preemption. Exclusive powers are also some other fix of powers give tongue to in the Constitution. These are powers given solely to the federal government. The powers of creating and upholding an the States and navy, declaring war, an d regulating doctor are all exclusive powers. Education is run by the states because running education is not stated as an exclusive power. Another set of powers stated in the Constitution are concurrent powers.Concurrent powers are powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments. The right to tax, borrow, and discharge are all powers that can be exercised by the federal and state governments. Implied powers are another(prenominal) set of powers given to the federal government by the Constitution. These powers are across-the-board, but undefined, powers that were basically created on the motif that not all powers could possibly be listed to meet the demand of the developing nation. These include the prevalent well- beingness clause, the necessary and proper clause, and the interstate commerce clause. The general offbeat clause gives sexual relation the authority to provide for the general welfare.The necessary and proper clause gives social intercourse t he right to pass any law that they think is necessary and proper to help in carrying out the responsibilities of the federal government as they are defined in the Constitution. The interstate commerce clause gives intercourse the right to regulate interstate commerce. These clauses have been broadly interpreted which, in result, has been boastful Congress more and more impliedpowers. sequence the Constitution has been shifting more power into the hands of Congress, there isnt a great deal stated for the state governments. It does, however, state the full faith and credit clause. This clause requires that states confess each others public records and acts, meaning that contract, leave behinds, and marriages that are valid in one state are all valid in all other states. In essence, this clause is the financial binding of state and local government. Another clause that was stated in the Constitution for state purposes is the privileges and immunities clause. Under this clause, st ates are prohibited from neat against the citizens of other states.The Bill of Rights was also something draw up into the Constitution to promote individual and state rights by limiting the power of the federal government. The Tenth Amendment addresses the power of the states. It guarantees a broad and undefined set of powers be reticent for only the states and people. The Fourteenth Amendment also deals with specifying the powers of states. This amendment makes it so that the states cannot deprive individuals of the rights and privileges of citizenship and it also requires states to provide receivable process and equal protection guarantees. The constituent(a) basis for federalism in the United States is a big part of its government.Federalism is not a cut and dry system, however. There are many different qualitys of federalism. One of these types is dual-federalism. It is the idea that federal and state governments have powers and responsibilities that are separate and diffe rent. Dual-federalism is the midpoint between nation-centered federalism and state-centered federalism nation-centered federalism being the belief that the nation is the basis of the federal system and that the national government should take superiority over the states, and state-centered federalism is the exact opposite. Advocates of states rights hold with the compact theory and believe in a government for the states.Whoever advocates states rights believes that states should be able to make their own decisions without any check from the federal government. The compact theory is the idea that the Constitution represents an agreement among the sovereign states to form a common government. Ittook the practice of nullification to an extreme back during the 1820s and 1830s. Eventually, national policies unbroken upsetting the southern states in the U.S. and that led to secession arguments. The concept that it is insurmountable for state and federal governments to have different and separate jurisdictions and that both those federal and state governments must work together is called cooperative federalism. concerted Federalism comes in different forms as well.The head start form of cooperative federalism is Layer coat Federalism. This form of federalism consists of delineated lines that separate federal, state, and local governments. Layer cover Federalism is rarely used. The trice form of cooperative federalism is Marble Cake Federalism. In Marble Cake Federalism, federal, state, and local governments are so thoroughly blend with each other that they are impossible to separate from each other.This form of federalism is more common in the United States. The third form of cooperative federalism is Picket fencing Federalism or centralized federalism. Centralized federalism is the concept that the federal government should take the tether role in setting national policy, with state and local governments helping to machine the policies. Centralized fe deralism has shifted power from the states to federal government. The power shift can be seen through grants given to the state governments by the federal governmentThe federal government supplies many different forms of grants-in-aid. The first form is a categorical grant, which is money given for particularised programs, leaving the state and local governments with itsy-bitsy discretion on how to spend it. The south form of a grant-in-aid is a general revenue sharing grant. These grants come with a couple of(prenominal) constraints and they admit the state or neighborhood with almost complete discretion over how they want to spend the money. All grants given by the federal government come with constraints crosscutting requirements.Crossover sanctions are federal requirements that regulation the grant recipients to pass and implement received laws or principles as a physical body of receiving the fund. Sometimes the federal government issues action-requiring aspire orders to the states and localities but dont provide any financial support for that action. Theseorders are called unfunded mandates. These grants have all helped in shifting power from the state governments to the federal governments, but there has been a young form of federalism that has been shifting power back to the state governments.This form of federalism is called new federalism. bran-new federalism is the belief that states should receive more power and authority and less money from the federal government. Block grants were the type of grants that were preferred in new federalism. They are federal grants-in-aid that are given for general policy areas and leave states and localities with wide discretion on how to spend the money within the designated policy area. opposed new federalism, ad hoc federalism is a form of government that could differ from time to time.Ad hoc federalism depends on the issue at hand. It is the process of choosing a state-centered or nation-centered vi ew of federalism on the basis of political or tendencious convenience. In other words, ad hoc federalism can be swayed either towards the states or towards the federal government by whichever party has the prevalent hand in Congress. The Bush-era was expound as entering the United States into ad hoc federalism. This type of federalism is not definitive.To sum things up, federalism cannot be described in one single sentence. Federalism has its ins, outs, ups, downs, and can be all over the place. Federalisms many forms are what make this system of government unique and different from the others. It has taken the United States into some fortunate and some not-so-fortunate times. It is a complicated concept that will continue to change as the United States advances even further into the future.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Factors Affecting Organizational Structure Essay

A companionships organisational social system move determine its success or failure upon entry into the market. The decisions a sm solely- line of reasoning possessor makes in choosing counselling and employee roles at bottom the high society help determine the organisational construction and can declare a greathearted influence on the tillage within the business. If twist doesnt reflect the owners business goals, employees whitethorn gain a hard time works successfully for the troupe.Change heed changeResearch-based, holistic model for managing the people incline of changewww.change-management.comSize of BusinessAs a small-business owner, the size of your company can have a significant influence on the organizational structure of your company. If youre run a sole proprietorship with a few employees, you may not even need a well-defined organizational structure if you perform all the management functions of the business. A larger organization acquires more than structure to allow its different components to give-up the ghost effectively with one another. For example, a full-service eating place requires a kitchen theater director, floor manager, bar manager and general manager to run all(prenominal) division within the establishment and reserve the employees in each division path(a) to task.Stage of DevelopmentThe layer of your companys using can range its needs regarding organizational structure. The youth stage of a companys deportment cycle emphasizes growth and the needs of the customer. This may require you as a business owner to develop an organizational structure around increased customer service, including a system to handle complaints and develop infract service strategies. At this stage youre still very much in control of the majority of the companys day-to-day business decisions. By contrast, in the midlife stage of development, your company may require more levels of management to handle the development departments with the company. Organizational structure may touch more mechanized with you as the owner somewhat removed from the day-to-day running of the company.Reflecting Organizational CultureThe business culture you wish to project to your employees can tell aspects of your companys organizational structure. For example, a company with multiple redundancies in the management infrastructure may prize procedure- and rule-following, whereas a company with a more informal management approach may move on a culture of personal will power among employees. Each culture has its place and benefits. A construction or manufacturing company has greater need of organizational structure and wordiness in the management infrastructure than a law firm where employees are on the job(p) independently under the loose semblance of senior partners in management roles. boilers suit Business StrategyHow your company intends to record the market and become successful can play a role in how you choose to se t up its organizational structure. For example, an aggressive marketing and product-placement strategy may require multiple department heads to devise efforts and ensure no portion of the companys larger plan lags quarter the rest. Alternatively, a more methodical development strategy may require a smaller, more focused organizational structure, so you can actively monitor all the details of a plan and tidy sum progress.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Marketing Plan: Product and Performance Essay

Marketing Plan: Product and Performance Essay

As individuals become more conscious of your product, make certain they have easy to not only your own product, but to information concerning the item also.The cellular phone is easy to carry, manages schedules, and can perform all the business related tasks. The size itself has become important apart from mobility. The concept that we how are launching is of a radio and music player which is latest in the sense that you can wear it as a fashion accessory. Radio is considered to be one of the most important media apart from television and internet.The item needs to be technologically feasible.20 are extremely popular within the target market. The major target market for our product is the age between 15 and 26. According to the statistics, 30 million Pakistanis how are aged between 15 and 24. Considered in the context of total population (approx.

Think beyond the box, if you wish to launch check your merchandise into the market with a bang.This generation is the technologically accessorized generation, with everything hanging from their clothes, from cell phones to CD players, and computers are a way of life. This is a branded generation, brand names, association with the great life and other different symbols are important. The emerging concept of brand association amongst teens and adults, and awareness will make our product more appealing to the customers. Our Primary objective is to achieve get our product recognized and make the consumers to get performance of the product way much better than their expectations.For instance, you might provide a product that is quality that is high at even a support that is flexible or a premium cost.The higher secondary data for our assignment came from the internet, newspapers and magazines.Current Market Situation:The current market situation is that from the cheapest of cellular phones to the most expensive, every smart phone has at least a radio in it that works from earphones that do the job of an antenna or the smart phones carry wireless radio connectivity. Other than that most phones have music players. In such a market where mobile phones are treated as a necessity from quite a long while we’d enter with a product that has a awful lot of internal memory, long batter and works hand in hand with the fashion.

Even if your merchandise is the most recent economic advancement in the business it is likely to result in complete failure if theres no effective route to get to the target group of consumers.The basic concept that we are launching is of an earring radio and music player which is latest in the sense that you can abrasive wear it as a fashion accessory. We are  launching it under the brand name LAPCA. Radio is considered to be one of the most important media apart from television logical and internet. The major source in use during cricket matches, exercising in the morning and during traveling for work or school.Paid political Advertising How you promote your product is as vital as distribution.People would not need to get their ears pierced to wear long earrings and we bring music player and radio attached to such a small earpiece that would not be noticed much (like the other offerings of attached Bluetooth insert earphones that appear too large).Objectives and issues:Incr ease the profits by at least 10% in the first year of the launch. Issue: How to significant increase the awareness amongst customers about this product?To create 10% market share for the product and to work to improve it further. Issue: What great measure to take to identify the potential customers of the product in the market?To identify 5 potential outlets where to place the product initially.

Each approach good will be different consistent with service or the merchandise youre offering.We will market our product through multiple segment strategy, as we are be targeting GEN X and GEN Y belonging to upper class and upper middle class of our society. Through integral multiple marketing, Moby X can achieve market position as because it is a product which provides mobility, style and fulfills the needs of the consumers.Moby X is a part of the clinical most reliable and trusted technologies belonging to LAPCO which is using Japanese latest technology in it which would further strengthens the reputation it would acquire. Now days, how there is a growing trend of adopting the inimitable style which people will definitely feel after purchasing the product.Following that, you ought to be aware of customers will assign to your merchandise.Market Positioning:Moby X has been positioned in the customers mind as a part of their lifestyle it impeccable suited their personality. It has positioned on the personal following grounds:Made for you exclusivelyLifestyle and technologyEarrings with variety of colors and designFine-looking wrapping and easy to carryStatement:â€Å"Enjoy with Style†Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Characteristics affecting Adoption:†¢ Relative Advantage: The first of new its kind is being introduced in the market; the concept itself will attract the customer.†¢ Compatibility: Moby X higher range of frequency will make it easier to add main channel and thus more value to the product. Secondly, memory of 20GB to carry your songs and making of playlists.

Marketing is a fundamental important part of business achievement.Age:Our product caters to women ranging from age 15-26 yrs old. Moreover, through our advertisements we have portrayed an active woman who is cold working out or busy in kitchen chores.Occupation:Moby X targets women belonging to each and every type of occupation whether it is a housewife, student logical and working women.Income:Our product Moby X caters to upper class and upper middle class.At times it is helpful to look at recent publication marketing as what it is actually a enterprise.SWOT AnalysisStrengthensBeing first of its kind to be launched in the marketThe smaller sizeThe mobilityThe attractive package and demo included in the gadgetThe exquisite location of electronic gadget’s other outlets in different mallsEasy to useIn accordance with the latest fashionAttractive mix of radio and music player hand in hand as a same fashion accessory Japanese technology, one of the most reliable manufactures WeaknessLimited warrantyRequires proper maintenanceBatteries are to be charged according to usage level thus requires cost to keep the little gadget workingOpportunitiesThe customers are fond of accessories which can help extend our accessories from earrings to rings, bracelets and necklace fair Hearing radio can replace the care tapes as being mobile and fashionable in nature Being a new product creating a new market the competition is minimized to a first great extent The distinctive attributes will outweigh the element of high price The opening of the new malls throughout the country with better electronic outlets will provide a better location to display the gadget There is an opportunity for line extensionNew technology is in its growing stage which helps attract customers with new its distinctive attributes The interests of teenagers in acquiring latest technology will further increase the market share Computer system placed at the electronic outlets could self help provide fr ee demos of the product at the outlet A survey at the outlet about the buying experience of the product and after sale experience can great help make the product more effective and increased customer satisfaction The smaller size and mobility if appreciated could provide line extension for the productThreatsThe electronic market is still under developed in PakistanThe fluctuating electronic logical and political conditions of the country can hinder the sale of the product Less awareness amongst the public about the electronic items The training of sales person for the productCompetitors can come up start with a similar and better product before our product is established The higher price of the product could lead to duplicate products in the market The health conscious people could negative resist the productThe fashion conscious people may not take the initiative to buy the productThe analytical buyerMarketing Environments (PEST ANALYSIS)Political:The fluctuating political environm ent in the country can be dangerous. Since the gross product being developed is manufactured in another country the support of the government is required to keep the government conditions in import and export stable logical and to strengthen relationships with the other country to grow the business further. Economical:The product that is being launched is an expensive product the economic conditions will determine the national income or the buying power of the consumer which indirectly will determine whether the people would be willing on the products that are not part of their basic needs.Social:Since the product is an earring radio and music player which would be fixed in an earring placed quite close to the ear can be considered as dangerous unlooked for the ear.

Your marketing program should begin with an executive summary.Moby X direct competitors are small radios (ear piece) and new mp3 players that can fit in ear easily.COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGEMoby X is not just a FM radio with music player but it is consider also a blend of fashion and technology. Long lasting Japanese battery gives it an edge over other mini radios logical and music players that have maximum life of 2-48 hours on continuous use. Providing maximum FM band range from 87-108 MHz among new its competitors who offer mini radios with FM band 88-108 MHz Furthermore, adding value to the music player with 20GB built-in memory which wouldn’t look small for at least 10-15 years from now.You want a marketing program, to increase your organization.Channel and former logisticA value delivery network is made up of the company, suppliers, distributors and ultimately customers. Here will be a layer of intermediaries that good will perform work in bringing our product and its o wnership closer to the final buyer. For our earring local radio and music player we will have both a direct and indirect marketing channel. We will have a customer marketing channel.

Marketing own plans are included in business plans, offering data demonstrating investors the way the corporation will increase and first and foremost how they how are going to guarantee a return on investment.LEVELS OF PRODUCTCore ProductMoby X provides a solution to its users that connect them to the global world and at the thk same time add value to their beauty. It is smallest in size but greater in quality and style that’s what the consumers want. Actual ProductMoby X, an earring radio and a music player.Augmented ProductCustomers are provided with the free demos of the product on computer system installed at the outlets and for further understanding, instruction booklet is also provided with Moby X.In addition, it can be explained as a method which helps a business to choose the best common use of its assets to achieve corporate aims.PRODUCT COMPOSITIONProduct Quality:Moby X works great, everywhere in the world, under brand name LAPCO using Japanese microchip techn ology logical and providing the FM band from 87 to 108 MHz’s Stereo-sound is really excellent plus 3-years money back warranty is also given. Product Features:Push-button Auto Seek new Microchip Technology so you can immediately and perfectly tune in stations (Automatic FM Tuning).Provides high quality stereo sound.Long last many Japanese battery included.

Seemingly, however good it is, a plan cant implement itself.Ideal for use in parties, sports, travels, hiking, working, Jogging, bike riding, boating, fishing, picnics, reading, camping, skate boarding, gift giving, foot and vehicle surveillance, to pass the time while waiting for subject, anywhere, everywhere, in the form of earring as simple microchip (radio). A music player main memory of 20GB built-in.Product Style and Design:It comes in many splendid colors with different style for female. It is designed in a way so as to increase portability.The advertising program would then summarize the objectives which need to be achieved in order to achieve the fifteen percent increase.Packaging:Moby X what comes in a square and heart shaped gift box.Labeling:All the important information is mentioned on the label. The label contains the name of the product, name of the manufacturer and distributors, warranty limit, warnings, guidelines on usage.Product Support:A booklet on guideline s regarding the product is provided with Moby X.

Done properly, your advertising plan is currently going to be the detailed roadmap you follow enhance the achievement of your company and to acquire customers.The price is aligned with other marketing mix covering the promotion, placement and product.Cost:The political organization has tried to achieve economies of scale but not the cost of quality. The cost is being monitored and is kept to a minimum by choosing the best second deals given by the supplier and managing the cost accordingly.Organizational Considerations:The price set has been influenced by different functions of the organization including the finance, manufacturer, sales logical and marketing and the higher  management.With your promotion plan bundle, you will have the ability to construct a advertising and marketing program.44ZI AM Radio Rs. 8405Tiny FM Radios (China Toy Factory Inc)Rs.1200Mini Mp3sRs. 1500 (starting from)Competition Based Pricing:We are following the growing rate pricing according to which w e fix how our price after considering all the factors as to Rs.

PROMOTIONMoby X being a new product in the market would require intensive advertising. The positioning and the new idea behind the brand selection would be used as a basis for advertisements and the advertisements would be informative.ADVERTISINGRadio:Radio FM channels would be able to attract the major cream who could use our product and create a positive word of mouth for others. Since they being the regular radio good listeners would be excited to use this product as they could carry the radio with them.Apart from ‘Dawn’ the other newspaper that the product would be advertised in how are ‘The News’ and ‘Daily Times’.Magazines:Moby X being a technology product it would be advertised in magazines as ‘SHE’ a leading magazine. Another magazine that is famous amongst out flat major target segment the teens is ‘Young Times’. It is Dubai based magazine is especially for kids.Television:The few major channels as HUM TV and GEO TV will be given the task to advertise the on line a website providing information regarding new technologies, a famous website viewed by most of the Pakistanis and Apniisp.Action ProgramsJuly: We good will launch a sales promotion campaign in Karachi city which should be estimated at around RS. 2 Million. During this period our main aim is to make the consumers aware of the product through excessive adverts it is  essential for us to educate our dealers and consumers properly. Our main conscious awareness campaigns will be concentrated toward the television and internet it will fix in a relatively low and economical budget.